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Table 1 SSc-PAH baseline characteristics by sex

From: Sex disparities in systemic sclerosis-associated pulmonary arterial hypertension: a cohort study

SSc patient characteristics Males Females Standardized difference
n = 58 n = 320
Age at PAH diagnosis, y, mean (SD) 54.5 (11.0) 57.3 (13.0) 0.05
Time from SSc to PAH diagnosis, y, mean (SD) 1.7 (14.0) 5.5 (14.2) 0.93a
PAH disease duration, y, mean (SD) 3.5 (3.1) 4.7 (4.2) 0.29a
SSc manifestations
 Diffuse subtype, n (%) 23 (40 %) 69 (22 %) 0.40a
 Raynaud’s phenomenon, n (%) 56 (97 %) 302 (94 %) 0.10
 Telangiectasia, n (%) 46 (79 %) 224 (70 %) 0.22
 Renal crisis, n (%) 11 (19 %) 26 (8 %) 0.32a
 Esophageal dysmotility, n (%) 51 (88 %) 276 (86 %) 0.05
 Digital ulcers, n (%) 16 (28 %) 120 (38 %) 0.21
 Interstitial lung disease, n (%) 39 (67 %) 153 (48 %) 0.40a
 ScL-70 antibody, n (%) 10 (17 %) 36 (11 %) 0.17
 Anticentromere antibody, n (%) 9 (15 %) 49 (17 %) 0.06
Cardiopulmonary measures
 6MWD, m, mean (SD) 344.3 (140.9) 324.5 (154.6) 0.06
 WHO functional class III-IV, n (%) 24 (41 %) 124 (39 %) 0.05
 mPAP, mmHg, mean (SD) 44.9 (20.5) 40.7 (21.7) 0.10
 mPVR, dyn · s/cm5, mean (SD) 705.0 (710.5) 584.7 (552.9) 0.19
 Cardiac output L/min, mean (SD) 4.2 (2.4) 3.3 (1.6) 0.26a
 PCWP, mmHg, /mean (SD) 13.3 (6.2) 9.5 (6.2) 0.33a
 BNP pg/mL, mean (SD) 203.0 (266.9) 245.9 (481.3) 0.19
 FVC, % predicted 79.3 (17.4) 76.1 (24.6) 0.04
 FEV1, % predicted 80.3 (18.2) 78.2 (26.1) 0.03
 DLCO, ml/min/mmHg 52.1 (19.7) 55.3 (19.5) 0.06
Right ventricular enlargement    
 Normal 40 (69 %) 250 (78 %) 0.21
 Mild 5 (9 %) 24 (8 %) 0.04
 Moderate 10 (17 %) 35 (11 %) 0.18
 Severe 3 (5 %) 11 (3 %) 0.09
Right ventricular dysfunction    
 Normal 39 (67 %) 249 (78 %) 0.23
 Mild 5 (9 %) 26 (8 %) 0.02
 Moderate 12 (21 %) 38 (12 %) 0.24
 Severe 2 (3 %) 7 (2 %) 0.07
Comorbidities
 Coronary artery disease, n (%) 12 (21 %) 40 (13 %) 0.22
 Hypertension, n (%) 13 (22 %) 88 (28 %) 0.12
 Diabetes mellitus, n (%) 5 (9 %) 21 (7 %) 0.08
 Hyperlipidemia, n (%) 8 (14 %) 26 (8 %) 0.18
 Atrial fibrillation, n (%) 6 (10 %) 28 (9 %) 0.05
 Peripheral vascular disease, n (%) 3 (5 %) 19 (6 %) 0.03
 Stroke, n (%) 2 (3 %) 15 (5 %) 0.06
  1. SSc-PAH systemic sclerosis-associated pulmonary arterial hypertension, ScL-70 topoisomerase I, 6MWD 6-minute walk test, WHO World Health Organization, mPAP mean pulmonary artery pressure, mPVR mean pulmonary vascular resistance, PCWP pulmonary capillary wedge pressure, BNP brain natriuretic peptide, FVC forced vital capacity, FEV1 forced expiratory volume 1, DLCO diffusing capacity of the lungs for carbon monoxide
  2. aDenotes standardized difference greater than 25 %