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Table 5 Most frequent clinical manifestations in patients with SLE

From: The assessment of serum-mediated phagocytosis of necrotic material by polymorphonuclear leukocytes to diagnose and predict the clinical features of systemic lupus erythematosus: an observational longitudinal study

Clinical manifestation Always positive PNC (n = 12 patients, 166 assessments) Always negative PNC (n = 31 patients, 475 assessments) Variable PNC (n = 26 patients, 459 assessments)
Glomerulonephritis 31.9 % 10.5 %a 6.5 %a
Arthritis 1.8 %b 16.6 % 6.1 %a,b
Mucocutaneous 24.7 % 21.3 % 13.9 %a,b
Alopecia 10.8 % 7.8 % 7.2 %
Hematologic 3.0 %c 1.1 %c 7.0 %b
SLEDAI-2K >1 57.8 % 48.8 % 44.7 %a,b
  1. SLEDAI-2K Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Disease Activity Index 2000
  2. aSignificant difference (p ≤ 0.05) compared with “Always positive PNC”
  3. bSignificant difference (p ≤ 0.05) compared with “Always negative PNC”
  4. cSignificant difference (p ≤ 0.05) compared with “Variable PNC”
  5. The 69 patients are grouped depending on the outcome of PNC assay (positive or negative) over time