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Table 3 Identified serum and plasma biomarkers

From: Review of biomarkers in systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis: helpful tools or just playing tricks?

Biomarker Detection method Intended use (P/D) + Reference BMS scorea Q1 + Q2 + Q3 + Q4 + Q5 = total
Abbreviation/gene name Full/alternative name   D P  
A2M Alpha-2-macroglobulin Commercial ELISA   [45] 1 + 0 + 0 + 1 + 0 = 2
AB-oxLDL Antibodies to oxidized low-density lipoprotein Commercial ELISA [68]   1 + 0 + 0 + 1 + 0 = 2
ACAN Aggrecan core protein, cartilage-specific core protein Immunoassay [69]   1 + 0 + 0 + 1 + 0 = 2
ACPA Anti-citrullinated protein antibodies Commercial ELISA [39] [39] 1 + 0 + 0 + 1 + 0 = 2
ACT Alpha-1-antichymotrypsin Commercial ELISA   [45] 1 + 0 + 0 + 1 + 0 = 2
AECA Anti-endothelial cell antibodies In-house ELISA [70]   1 + 0 + 0 + 1 + 0 = 2
AGP1 Alpha-1-acid-glycoprotein Commercial ELISA   [45] 1 + 0 + 0 + 1 + 0 = 2
ANA Antinuclear antibody Fluorescence assay   [36] 1 + 1 + 0 + 1 + 0 = 3
Commercial ELISA [37]
Anti-BiP Anti-immunoglobulin binding protein/glucose regulated protein 78 (GRP78) In-house ELISA [71]   1 + 0 + 0 + 1 + 0 = 2
Anti-CCP Anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide Commercial ELISA [72]   1 + 0 + 0 + 1 + 0 = 2
APO A1 Apolioprotein A1 Commercial ELISA   [45] 1 + 0 + 0 + 1 + 0 = 2
APO VI Apolipoprotein VI Commercial ELISA   [45] 1 + 0 + 0 + 1 + 0 = 2
APRIL A proliferation-inducing ligand Commercial ELISA [73] [73] 1 + 0 + 0 + 1 + 0 = 2
B2M Beta -2-microglobulin Not indicated   [74] 1 + 0 + 0 + 1 + 0 = 2
BAFF B-cell activating factor Commercial ELISA [73] [73] 1 + 0 + 0 + 1 + 0 = 2
C4 Complement C4 Commercial ELISA   [45] 1 + 0 + 0 + 1 + 0 = 2
CCL3 Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 3 Luminex assay [57]   1 + 0 + 0 + 1 + 0 = 2
CD10 Cluster of differentiation antigen 10, also called neprilysin Fluorimetric assay [75]   1 + 0 + 0 + 1 + 0 = 2
CFH Complement factor H Commercial ELISA   [45] 1 + 0 + 0 + 1 + 0 = 2
COMP Cartilage oligomeric matrix protein Commercial ELISA [39] [39] 1 + 1 + 0 + 1 + 0 = 3
[76] [77]
[78]
CXCL9 Chemokine (C-X-C Motif) ligand 9 Luminex assay [57]   1 + 0 + 0 + 1 + 0 = 2
Fibrin D-dimer   Commercial assay   [79] 1 + 0 + 0 + 1 + 0 = 2
FSTL-1 Follistatin-like protein 1 Commercial ELISA [80] [80] 1 + 1 + 0 + 1 + 0 = 3
[81]
GHRL Ghrelin, appetite regulating hormone Commercial ELISA [82]   1 + 0 + 0 + 1 + 0 = 2
GSN Gelsolin Commercial ELISA   [45] 1 + 0 + 0 + 1 + 0 = 2
Hepcidin Peptide hormone, released by hepatocytes Commercial assay [22]   1 + 0 + 0 + 1 + 0 = 2
HMGB1 High mobility group box protein 1 Commercial assay [83]   1 + 0 + 0 + 1 + 0 = 2
HO-1 Heme oxygenase-1 Commercial ELISA [84] [85] 1 + 1 + 0 + 1 + 1 = 4
HP Haptoglobin Commercial ELISA   [45] 1 + 0 + 0 + 1 + 0 = 2
IFNg Interferon gamma Commercial ELISA [86] [86] 1 + 0 + 0 + 1 + 0 = 2
IgA RF Ig A rheumatoid factor isotype In-house ELISA [87]   1 + 0 + 0 + 1 + 0 = 2
IgM RF Ig M rheumatoid factor isotype In-house ELISA [87]   1 + 0 + 0 + 1 + 0 = 2
IL-10 Interleukin-10 Commercial ELISA [88] [85] 1 + 0 + 0 + 1 + 0 = 2
IL-12 Interleukin-12 Luminex assay [57]   1 + 1 + 1 + 1 + 0 = 4
Commercial ELISA [89]
IL-18 Interleukin-18 Commercial assay Luminex assay [25]   1 + 1 + 1 + 1 + 0 = 4
[57] [24]
[86] [90]
[90] [91]
[92]  
IL-18BP Interleukin-18 binding protein Commercial assay [86]   1 + 1 + 0 + 1 + 0 = 3
[90] [90]
IL-1b Interleukin-1beta Commercial ELISA [89]   1 + 0 + 0 + 1 + 0 = 2
IL-6 Interleukin-6 Luminex assay Commercial ELISA [57] [24] 1 + 1 + 1 + 1 + 0 = 4
[86]
[89]
[76]
IP-10/CXCL10 IFNg-induced protein 10, or C-X-C motif chemokine 10 Commercial ELISA Luminex assay [57]   1 + 1 + 0 + 1 + 0 = 3
[86]
[93]
LGALS3 Galectin-3 Commercial ELISA [94]   1 + 0 + 0 + 1 + 0 = 2
MIF Macrophage migration inhibitory factor Luminex assay [57]   1 + 0 + 0 + 1 + 0 = 2
MMP-3 Matrix metalloprotinease-3/stromelysin-1 (SL-1) Commercial ELISA [72]   1 + 0 + 0 + 1 + 0 = 2
Neopterin   Commercial ELISA   [85] 1 + 0 + 0 + 1 + 0 = 2
NO Nitric oxide Spectrophotometry   [95] 1 + 0 + 0 + 1 + 0 = 2
OPG Osteoprotegerin/TNF 11B Luminex assay Commercial ELISA [57]   1 + 1 + 1 + 1 + 0 = 4
[96]
OPN Osteopontin, phosphoglycoprotein Commercial ELISA [97]   1 + 0 + 0 + 1 + 0 = 2
RA33 Anti-heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A2 antibodies Commercial ELISA [98]   1 + 0 + 0 + 1 + 0 = 2
RANKL TNF ligand superfamily member 11/receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B ligand Commercial ELISA [96]   1 + 0 + 0 + 1 + 0 = 2
Resistin Protein adipokine Commercial ELISA [99]   1 + 0 + 0 + 1 + 0 = 2
S100A12 S100 calcium-binding protein A12 In-house ELISA Commercial ELISA [45] [45] 1 + 1 + 1 + 1 + 0 = 4
[100] [100]
[101] [102]
S100A8/A9 MRP8/14 (myeloid regulatory protein 8/14) complex, complex of S100A8 (Calgranulin A) and S100A9 (Calgranulin B) In-house ELISA Commercial ELISA [23]   1 + 1 + 1 + 1 + 0 = 4
[45] [23]
[101] [17]
[103] [45]
SAA Serum amyloid A Commercial ELISA [45] [45] 1 + 1 + 0 + 1 + 0 = 3
[76]  
SAP Serum amyloid P Commercial ELISA   [45] 1 + 0 + 0 + 1 + 0 = 2
sCD163 Soluble cluster of differentiation 163/haemoglobin scavenging receptor Commercial ELISA   [85] 1 + 1 + 0 + 1 + 0 = 3
[104]
sCD21 Soluble cluster of differentiation 21 Commercial ELISA [105]   1 + 0 + 0 + 1 + 0 = 2
sCD23 Soluble cluster of differentiation 23/soluble low affinity immunoglobulin epsilon Fc receptor) Commercial ELISA [105]   1 + 0 + 0 + 1 + 0 = 2
sCD25 Soluble cluster of differentiation 25/soluble interleukin-2 receptor alpha Commercial ELISA   [74] 1 + 1 + 0 + 1 + 0 = 3
[104]
[106]
[107]
sE-selectin Soluble E-selectin adhesion molecule Commercial ELISA [108]   1 + 1 + 0 + 1 + 0 = 3
[109]
[110]
sICAM-1 Soluble intracellular adhesion molecule-1 Commercial ELISA [108]   1 + 1 + 0 + 1 + 0 = 3
[109]
[110]
sRAGE Soluble receptor for advanced glycation end products Commercial assay [83]   1 + 0 + 0 + 1 + 0 = 2
sST2 Soluble ST2, also called interleukin 1 receptor-like 1 (IL-1RL1) Commercial ELISA [111] [111] 1 + 0 + 0 + 1 + 0 = 2
sTM Soluble thrombomodulin/CD141 Commercial ELISA [112]   1 + 0 + 0 + 1 + 0 = 2
sTNFR55 Soluble tumour necrosis factor receptor 55 Commercial ELISA [113]   1 + 0 + 0 + 1 + 0 = 2
sTNFR75 Soluble tumour necrosis factor receptor 75 Commercial ELISA [113]   1 + 0 + 0 + 1 + 0 = 2
Survivin   Commercial ELISA [76]   1 + 0 + 0 + 1 + 0 = 2
TIMP Tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases Commercial ELISA [96]   1 + 0 + 0 + 1 + 0 = 2
TNF-alpha Tumour necrosis factor-alpha Commercial ELISA [88]   1 + 0 + 0 + 1 + 0 = 2
TTR Transthyretin Commercial ELISA [45] [45] 1 + 0 + 0 + 1 + 0 = 2
  1. aBiomarker scoring system (BMS) biomarker score: each answer is scored as follows: yes = 1, no = 0. D diagnostic, P prognostic, Q1 readily measurable (e.g. in serum), Q2 measured by more than one independent study group, Q3 discovered by more than one single method, Q4 measured by a reproducible assay, Q5 validated in a validation cohort, IFN interferon, TNF tumour necrosis factor