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Table 1 Patient demographics and disease characteristics

From: Frequency and predictors of the lupus low disease activity state in a multi-national and multi-ethnic cohort

  Number (%)c or mean (SD) or median (IQR 25–75) (n = 1846 patients)
Country
 Australia 240 (13.00 %)
 China 235 (12.73 %)
 Hong Kong 190 (10.29 %)
 Indonesia 98 (5.31 %)
 Malaysia 193 (10.46 %)
 Philippines 124 (6.72 %)
 Singapore 221 (11.97 %)
 Taiwan 295 (15.98 %)
 Thailand 250 (13.54 %)
Ethnicity
 Caucasian 126 (6.73 %)
 Chinese 1008 (54.60 %)
 Filipino 132 (7.15 %)
 Indonesian 102 (5.53 %)
 Thai 255 (13.81 %)
 Malay 98 (5.31 %)
 Vietnamese/Cambodian 24 (1.30 %)
 Indian/Sri Lankan 64 (3.47 %)
 Othera 37 (2.00 %)
Female gender 1723 (93.34 %)
Age at diagnosis (years) 29.34 (12.35)
Age at diagnosis ≤30 years 973 (52.71 %)
Disease duration at enrollment (years) 8.64 (8.50)
Disease duration at enrollment ≤1 year 149 (8.07 %)
Current smoker 67 (3.63 %)
First-degree relative with SLE 117 (6.34 %)
Highest attained education level
 Primary 242 (13.11 %)
 Secondary 572 (30.99 %)
 Tertiary 618 (33.48 %)
ACR criteriab
 Malar rash 1087 (58.88 %)
 Discoid rash 290 (15.71 %)
 Photosensitivity 537 (29.09 %)
 Mouth ulcers 670 (36.29 %)
 Arthritis 1205 (65.28 %)
 Serositis 313 (16.96 %)
 Renal 803 (43.50 %)
 Neurologic 160 (8.67 %)
 Haematologic 1118 (60.56 %)
 Immunologic 1547 (83.80 %)
ANA 1627 (88.14 %)
Number of ACR criteria for SLE 5.07 (1.39)
Number of SLICC criteria for SLE 5.70 (2.47)
SLICC-DI score at enrollment 0 (0–1)
Damage present at enrollmentd 694 (37.59 %)
PGA at enrollment 0.6 (0.3–1)
Mild flare since last clinical review 210 (11.38 %)
Severe flare since last clinical review 111 (5.94 %)
SLEDAI-2 K score 4 (2–6)
SLEDAI-2 K no complement or dsDNA 0 (0–4)
  1. aOther includes Hispanic, African, other South-East Asian, Pacific Islander and mixed ethnicity. bEver present arthritis (two or more joints with tenderness, swelling or effusion), serositis (pleuritis or pericarditis), renal disorder (persistent proteinuria >0.5 g/day, or presence of cellular casts), neurologic disorder (seizures or psychosis not attributable to other causes), haematologic disorder (haemolytic anaemia, leukopenia, lymphopenia or thrombocytopenia), immunologic criteria (presence of anti-dsDNA antibody, anti-Sm antibody, or positive finding of antiphospholipid antibodies). cPercent present shown in table, percent absent and missing not shown in table. dSLICC-DI >0. SLE systemic lupus erythematosus, ACR American College of Rheumatology, SLEDAI SLE disease activity index, SLICC Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics, DI damage index, PGA Physician Global Assessment, ANA antinuclear antibody, dsDNA double-stranded DNA