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Table 4 Expression of TGF-β, BMPs and CTGF in diseased human tendon samples versus healthy control tendon

From: Profibrotic mediators in tendon disease: a systematic review

  Tendon Increased, unchanged, decreased in diseased vs control
  Gene Protein
Tendinopathy
 TGFβ Achilles ↑ [29]  
 TGFβ1 RC, Achilles, patella ↑ [25, 27] ↓ [22], ↑ [24], → [23]
 TGFβ2 Achilles   ↑ [23]
 TGFβ3 Achilles   → [23]
 TGFβR1 RC, Achilles   → [22, 23]
 TGFβR2 RC, Achilles   ↓ [22, 23]
 BMP2 RC, patella → [29] ↑ [26]
 BMP4 RC, patella ↓ [29] ↑ [26]
 BMP6 RC ↓ [29]  
 BMP7 Patella   ↑ [26]
 CTGF Achilles → [27], ↓ [25]  
Tear
 TGFβ1 RC → [22] ↓ [22]
 TGFβR1 RC ↓ [22] ↓ [22]
 TGFβR2 RC ↑ [22] ↓ [22]
 BMP2 RC → [22]  
 BMP7 RC → [22]  
 CTGF RC → [22]  
  1. BMP bone morphogenic protein, CTGF connective tissue growth factor, RC rotator cuff, TGF-β transforming growth factor beta