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Table 5 Expression of TGF-β, BMPs and CTGF in animal models of tendon injury or overuse versus healthy control tendon

From: Profibrotic mediators in tendon disease: a systematic review

  Animal Tendon and model Increased, unchanged, decreased in animal models vs control
Gene Protein
Injury models
 TGFβ Rat Patella, transection (partial) ↑ (1, 3, 7, 14, 28, 56 d) [61]  
Chicken FDP, transection → repair ↑ (3 d), → (9, 14, 21 d) [51]
 TGFβ1 Rat Achilles, transection   → (2, 4, 6, 8 w) [48]
  Achilles, removal   → (2 d), ↑ (7 d), → (30, 90, 180 d) [49]
Mouse Achilles, transection ↑ (1, 2, 4 w) [47]  
Rabbit FDP, division → repair ↑ (3, 6, 12 d), → (24 d) [54]
  FDP, transection → repair → (1 d), ↑ (3, 7, 14, 28, 56 d) [60]
Horse FDS, CI ↑ (1, 2, 4 w), → (8 w), ↑ (24 w) [57] → (1, 2 w), ↑ (4, 8 w), → (24 w) [57]
 TGFβ2 Rat Achilles, transection ↑ (3, 5, 10 w) [50] ↑ (3, 5, 10 w) [50]
Mouse Achilles, transection ↑ (1, 2, 4 w) [47]  
 TGFβ3 Rat Achilles, transection ↑ (3, 5, 10 w) [50] ↑ (3, 5, 10 w) [50]
Mouse Achilles, transection → (1 w), ↑ (2, 4 w) [47]  
 TGFβR1 Mouse Achilles, transection → (1 w), ↑ (2 w), → (4 w) [47]
 TGFβR2 Mouse Achilles, transection ↑ (1, 2, 4 w) [47]
 TGFβR3 Mouse Achilles, transection → (1, 2, 4 w) [47]
 BMP1 Mouse Achilles, transection ↑ (1, 2, 4 w) [47]
 BMP2 Rat Achilles, transection ↑ (3, 5, 10 w) [50] ↑ (3, 5, 10 w) [50]
  Patella, CI ↑ (2 w), → (4, 12 w) [63] ↑ (2, 4, 8, 12 w) [62, 63], ↑ (16 w) [62]
  Patella, defect → (2, 4, 12 w) [63] ↑ (2, 4, 12 w) [63]
Mouse Achilles, transection ↓ (1, 2, 4 w) [47]  
 BMP3 Mouse Achilles, transection ↑ (1, 2, 4 w) [47]
 BMP4 Rat Achilles, transection ↑ (3, 5, 10 w) [50] ↑ (3, 5 w), → (10 w) [50]
  Patella, CI   ↑ (2, 4, 8, 12, 16 w) [62]
Mouse Achilles, transection → (1 w), ↑ (2, 4 w) [47]  
 BMP5 Mouse Achilles, transection → (1 w), ↑ (2, 4 w) [47]
 BMP6 Mouse Achilles, transection → (1, 2, 4 w) [47]
 BMP7 OP-1 Rat Achilles, transection ↑ (3, 5, 10 w) [50] ↑ (3, 5, 10 w) [50]
  Achilles, transection → unload ↑ (3, 8 d), → (14, 21 d) [64]  
  Achilles, transection → load → (3, 8, 14 d), ↓ (14, 21 d) [64]
  Patella, CI   ↑ (2, 4, 8, 12, 16 w) [62]
Mouse Achilles, transection → (1 w), ↑ (2, 4 w) [47]  
 BMP12 Rat Achilles, transection   ↑ (2 w), → (4, 6, 8 w) [48]
  Achilles, transection → unload ↓ (3, 8 d), → (14, 21 d) [64]  
  Achilles, transection → load ↓ (3, 8 d), → (14, 21 d) [64]
Mouse Achilles, transection → (1 w), ↑ (2, 4 w) [47]
 BMP13 Rat Achilles, transection → unload → (3, 8, 14 d), ↓ (21 d) [64]
  Achilles, transection → load → (3, 8, 14 d), ↓ (21 d) [64]
Mouse Achilles, transection → (1, 2, 4 w) [47]
 BMP14 Rat Achilles, transection → unload ↓ (3, 8, 14, 21 d) [64]
  Achilles, transection → load ↓ (3, 8, 14, 21 d) [64]
Mouse Achilles, transection ↓ (1 w), ↑ (2 w), → (4 w) [47]
 BMPR1a Mouse Achilles, transection ↑ (1, 2, 4 w) [47]
 BMPR1b Rat Achilles, transection → unload ↓ (3 d), → (8 d), ↑ (14 d), ↓ (21 d) [64]
  Achilles, transection → load → (3, 8, 14 d), ↓ (21 d) [64]
Mouse Achilles, transection → (1 w), ↑ (2, 4 w) [47]
 BMPR2 Rat Achilles, transection → unload → (3 d), ↑ (8, 14 d), ↓ (21 d) [64]
  Achilles, transection → load → (3 d), ↑ (8, 14 d), ↓ (21 d) [64]
Mouse Achilles, transection ↑ (1, 2, 4 w) [47]  
 CTGF Rabbit FDP, division → repair → (3, 6, 12, 24 d) [54]
Chicken FDP, transection → repair ↑ (3 d), → (9 d), ↓ (14, 21 d) [51]
Overuse models
 TGFβ1 Rat FD, hand-pulling task   → (18 w), ↑ (24 w) [30]
 CTGF Rat RC, hand-pulling task   ↑ (12 w) [31]
  FD, hand-pulling task   ↑ (18, 24 w) [30]
    → (3, 6 w), ↑ (12 w) [32]
Rabbit FDP, electrical stimulation →[42] ↑[43]
  1. BMP bone morphogenic protein, CI collagenase-induced, CTGF connective tissue growth factor, d day(s), FD flexor digitorum, FDP flexor digitorum profundus, FDS flexor digitorum superficialis, RC rotator cuff, TGF-β transforming growth factor beta, w week(s)