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Table 2 Hazard ratios of coronary heart disease associated with acupuncture and covariates among patients with fibromyalgia

From: Acupuncture decreased the risk of coronary heart disease in patients with fibromyalgia in Taiwan: a nationwide matched cohort study

Variable Number of events (n = 12,522) Crude HR (95% CI) p Value Adjusted HR (95% CI) p Value
Received acupuncture
 No 8133 1.00 Reference   1.00 Reference  
 Yes 4389 0.48 (0.46–0.5) <0.0001 0.43 (0.41–0.45) <0.0001
Sex
 Female 7138 1.00 Reference   1.00 Reference  
 Male 5384 0.98 (0.95–1.02) 0.3907 1.03 (0.99–1.07) 0.1072
Age group, years
 18–39 1248 1.00 Reference   1.00 Reference  
 40–59 7946 5.24 (4.94–5.56) <0.0001 4.24 (3.99–4.51) <0.0001
 ≥60 3328 11.33 (10.62–12.1) <0.0001 6.24 (5.81–6.71) <0.0001
Baseline comorbidities (reference = nonsite comorbidity)
 Diabetes mellitus 2994 2.9 (2.78–3.02) <0.0001 1.37 (1.31–1.44) <0.0001
 Hypertension 6188 4.03 (3.89–4.18) <0.0001 2.20 (2.11–2.3) <0.0001
 Hyperlipidemia 4452 2.88 (2.78–2.99) <0.0001 1.63 (1.56–1.7) <0.0001
 Congestive heart failure 298 3.19 (2.85–3.58) <0.0001 1.17 (1.04–1.32) 0.0078
 Cerebrovascular diseases 1966 2.81 (2.68–2.95) <0.0001 1.25 (1.19–1.32) <0.0001
 Depression 803 1.48 (1.38–1.59) <0.0001 1.1 (1.02–1.18) 0.0131
 Anxiety 1960 1.61 (1.53–1.69) <0.0001 1.21 (1.15–1.27) <0.0001
 Alcoholism or alcohol-related disorders 57 0.97 (0.75–1.25) 0.8031 0.93 (0.72–1.21) 0.5941
 Tobacco dependence 39 0.9 (0.66–1.23) 0.5098 0.83 (0.6–1.13) 0.2391
 Obesity 109 1.34 (1.11–1.62) 0.0024 1 (0.83–1.21) 0.9629
Drugs used
 Oral steroids 7490 0.62 (0.6–0.64) <0.0001 0.54 (0.52–0.56) <0.0001
 NSAIDs 11,804 0.21 (0.19–0.23) <0.0001 0.24 (0.22–0.26) <0.0001
 Statins 2218 1.28 (1.22–1.34) <0.0001 0.55 (0.52–0.58) <0.0001
  1. NSAIDs Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs
  2. a Crude HR represents relative hazard ratio
  3. b Adjusted HR represents adjusted hazard ratio mutually adjusted for accepted acupuncture, age, sex, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, congestive heart failure, cerebrovascular diseases, depression, anxiety, alcoholism or alcohol-related disorders, tobacco dependence, obesity, oral steroids, NSAIDs, and statins in Cox proportional hazards regression