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Table 3 Association between smoking status, socioeconomic status and level of formal education and development of primary Sjögren’s syndrome

From: Cigarette smoking and the risk of primary Sjögren’s syndrome: a nested case control study

   All pSS cases (n = 63) and matched controls (n = 252) OR (95% CI) Exposed (cases/controls) pSS cases with documented symptom onset after inclusion (n = 28) and matched controls (n = 112) OR (95% CI) Exposed (cases/controls)
Smoking Not current smokers Reference 50/159 Reference 22/74
Current smokers 0.3 (0.1–0.6) 10/92 0.2 (0.1–0.9) 4/38
Never smokers Reference 18/96 Reference 10/43
Former smokers 4.0 (1.8–8.8) 32/63 1.7 (0.6–5.6) 12/31
Current smokers 0.5 (0.2–1.3) 10/92 0.3 (0.1–1.5) 4/38
Socioeconomic status White-collar worker Reference 26/131 Reference 11/53
Blue-collar worker 1.4 (0.7–2.8) 22/89 0.8 (0.2–2.5) 9/40
Other 2.4 (0.7–8.4) 6/16 1.0 (0.3–3.2) 4/11
Education Medium/high Reference 33/144 Reference 11/55
Low 1.1 (0.6–2.1) 25/99 1.4 (0.5–4.0) 13/49
  1. Smoking status and level of formal education were assessed at inclusion in the health surveys. Patients were subsequently diagnosed with primary Sjögren’s syndrome (pSS) after a median of 8.2 years (IQR 2.4–14.1) after inclusion