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Table 2 Association between high levels of anti-viral antibodies and RA in subgroups of patients, divided based on the presence/absence of ACPA

From: Low levels of antibodies against common viruses associate with anti-citrullinated protein antibody-positive rheumatoid arthritis; implications for disease aetiology

Groups Virus Cases (%) Controls (%) OR (95% CI)a
All RA EBV lowb 805 (81) 525 (75) 1.0 ref
All RA EBV highc 185 (19) 175 (25) 0.7 (0.5–0.9)
ACPA- RA EBV low 307 (79) 525 (75) 1.0 ref
ACPA- RA EBV high 82 (21) 175 (25) 0.8 (0.6–1.1)
ACPA+ RA EBV low 498 (83) 525 (75) 1.0 ref
ACPA+ RA EBV high 103 (17) 175 (25) 0.6 (0.5–0.8)
All RA B19 low 796 (80) 525 (75) 1.0 ref
All RA B19 high 194 (20) 175 (25) 0.7 (0.6–0.9)
ACPA- RA B19 low 296 (76) 525 (75) 1.0 ref
ACPA- RA B19 high 93 (24) 175 (25) 0.9 (0.7–1.2)
ACPA+ RA B19 low 500 (83) 525 (75) 1.0 ref
ACPA+ RA B19 high 101 (17) 175 (25) 0.6 (0.5–0.8)
All RA CMV low 753 (76) 524 (75) 1.0 ref
All RA CMV high 234 (24) 175 (25) 0.9 (0.7–1.2)
ACPA- RA CMV low 296 (76) 524 (75) 1.0 ref
ACPA- RA CMV high 91 (24) 175 (25) 1.0 (0.8–1.3)
ACPA+ RA CMV low 457 (76) 524 (75) 1.0 ref
ACPA+ RA CMV high 143 (24) 175 (25) 0.9 (0.7–1.2)
  1. RA rheumatoid arthritis, ACPA anti-citrullinated protein antibody, CI confidence interval, EBV Epstein-Barr virus, CMV cytomegalovirus, ref reference
  2. aOdds ratios (OR) were adjusted for age, gender and residential area. Significant ORs are shown in italics
  3. bLow indicates lower three quartiles of antibody titres (75% lowest)
  4. cHigh indicates highest quartile of antibody titres (25% highest)