Skip to main content

Table 2 Linear regression analysis of differences in carbohydrate metabolism molecules, incretin hormones, and insulin resistance indexes between patients with rheumatoid arthritis and control subjects

From: Incretins in patients with rheumatoid arthritis

    Univariate model Adjusted model Adjusted model + GC
Control subjects (n = 210) Patients with RA (n = 151) p Value β Coefficient (95% CI) p Value β Coefficient (95% CI) p Value
Glucose, mg/dl 90 ± 10 88 ± 19 0.21 3 (−1 to 7) 0.37 1 (−4 to 5) 0.71
Insulin, U/ml 9.8 ± 6.5 13.0 ± 13.4 0.007 3.0 (0.2 to 5.8) 0.037 3.2 (0.1 to 6.4) 0.046
C-peptide, ng/ml 1.53 ± 0.77 3.37 ± 2.94 0.000 2.13 (1.56 to 2.69) 0.000 1.98 (1.35 to 2.61) 0.000
GLP-1, ng/ml 0.49 ± 1.28 0.71 ± 0.22 0.06 0.31 (0.25 to 0.38) 0.000 0.32 (0.25 to 0.39) 0.000
GIP, ng/ml 0.37 ± 0.40 1.78 ± 0.51 0.000 1.35 (1.19 to 1.51) 0.000 1.33 (1.15 to 1.51) 0.000
DPP-4, ng/ml 811 ± 459 696 ± 301 0.007 −112 (−213 to −10) 0.032 −85 (−199 to 30) 0.15
HOMA2 insulin
 HOMA2-IR 1.27 ± 0.82 1.65 ± 1.69 0.011 0.38 (0.03 to 0.74) 0.036 0.39 (−0.01 to 0.79) 0.054
 HOMA2-%S 108 ± 75 105 ± 53 0.65 −19 (3 to −35) 0.019 −25 (−7 to −42) 0.006
 HOMA2-%B 111 ± 45 134 ± 69 0.000 8 (−8 to 23) 0.33 13 (−4 to 31) 0.14
HOMA2 C-peptide
 HOMA2-IR 1.13 ± 0.58 2.49 ± 2.35 0.000 1.63 (−1.18 to 2.09) 0.000 1.51 (1.00 to 2.02) 0.000
 HOMA2-%S 115 ± 75 67 ± 41 0.000 −51 (−68 to −34) 0.000 −45 (−64 to −28) 0.000
 HOMA2-%B 104 ± 36 180 ± 82 0.000 71 (55 to 88) 0.000 74 (55 to 93) 0.000
  1. Abbreviations: DPP-4 Dipeptidyl peptidase 4, GC Glucocorticoid, GIP Gastric inhibitory polypeptide, GLP-1 Glucagon-like peptide 1, HOMA Homeostatic model assessment, HOMA2-%B Homeostatic model assessment of β-cell production calculated with C-peptide, HOMA2-IR Homeostatic model assessment calculated with insulin, RA Rheumatoid arthritis
  2. Adjusted model for age, sex, waist circumference, dyslipidemia, statins, antihypertensive treatment, and C-reactive protein and cholesterol levels. Analytical data represent unadjusted values: β coefficient (95% CI). p<0.05 are depicted in bold