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Table 3 Inflammatory markers, disease-related data, and disease activity scores: univariate relationship with insulin and C-peptide serum levels, incretins, dipeptidyl peptidase 4, and homeostatic model assessment calculated with insulin indexes

From: Incretins in patients with rheumatoid arthritis

  β Coefficient (95% CI), p value
Insulin, U/ml C-peptide, ng/ml GLP-1, ng/ml GIP, ng/ml DPP-4, ng/ml HOMA2-IR insulin HOMA2-%B C-peptide
CRP, mg/dl 0.02 (−0.05 to 0.08), 0.61 0.01 (−0.02 to 0.03), 0.09 0.00 (−0.00 to 0.00), 0.70 0.00 (−0.00 to 0.01), 0.44 −1 (−4 to 2), 0.64 0.00 (−0.01 to 0.01), 0.61 0.54 (0.16 to 0.96), 0.013
ESR, mm/h −0.01 (−0.10 to 0.09), 0.88 0.00 (−0.02 to 0.03), 0.67 0.00 (−0.00 to 0.00), 0.47 0.01 (0.00 to 0.01), 0.033 1 (−1 to 3), 0.37 −0.00 (−0.01 to 0.01), 0.90 0.08 (−0.50 to 0.66), 0.79
Disease duration, years −0.03 (−0.27 to 0.20), 0.78 0.01 (−0.05 to 0.06), 0.82 −0.00 (−0.01 to 0.00), 0.40 0.01 (−0.00 to 0.02), 0.20 2 (−3 to 8), 0.40 −0.00 (−0.03 to 0.03), 0.82 −0.51 (−1.95 to 0.94), 0.49
ACPA −4.57 (−9.09 to −0.04), 0.048 −1.11 (−2.10 to −0.11), 0.029 0.02 (−0.07 to 0.10), 0.70 −0.01 (−0.20 to 0.18), 0.91 157 (58 to 256), 0.002 −0.57 (−1.14 to 0.01), 0.053 −32.23 (−60.02 to −4.44), 0.023
Rheumatoid factor −1.41 (−6.45 to 3.63), 0.58 −0.10 (−1.21 to 1.01), 0.85 0.04 (−0.06 to 0.13), 0.44 0.10 (−0.10 to 0.31), 0.33 76 (−35 to 188), 0.18 −0.13 (−0.77 to 0.50), 0.68 −18.37 (−49.31 to 12.57), 0.24
DAS28-ESR −0.49 (−2.32 to 1.35), 0.60 −0.01 (−0.41 to 0.40), 0.98 0.01 (−0.03 to 0.4), 0.65 −0.04 (−0.12 to 0.03), 0.24 46 (6 to 87), 0.026 −0.06 (−0.29 to 0.18), 0.64 −0.79 (−12.11 to 10.53), 0.89
DAS28-CRP −0.22 (−2.43 to 2.00), 0.85 0.08 (−0.41 to 0.57), 0.75 0.01 (−0.03 to 0.05), 0.64 −0.05 (−0.14 to 0.04), 0.30 45 (−5 to 94), 0.075 −0.02 (−0.30 to 0.26), 0.88 3.33 (−10.31 to 16.97), 0.63
SDAI 0.00 (−0.10 to 0.11), 0.96 0.01 (−0.02 to 0.03), 0.61 −0.00 (−0.00 to 0.00), 0.34 0.00 (−0.00 to 0.00), 0.99 1.49 (−0.87 to 3.85), 0.21 0.00 (−0.01 to 0.01), 0.97 0.38 (−0.26 to 1.03), 0.24
CDAI −0.06 (−0.36 to 0.23), 0.67 −0.00 (−0.07 to 0.06), 0.90 0.00 (−0.00 to 0.01); 0.40 −0.01 (−0.02 to 0.00); 0.075 7.74 (1.29 to 14.2), 0.019 −0.01 (−0.05 to 0.03), 0.68 0.02 (−1.78 to 1.82), 0.98
SDAI −0.01 (−0.11 to 0.10), 0.92 0.00 (−0.02 to 0.03), 0.72 −0.00 (−0.00 to 0.00), 0.28 0.00 (−0.00 to 0.01), 0.84 1.24 (−1.16 to 3.64), 0.31 −0.00 (−0.01 to 0.01), 0.91 0.34 (−0.32 to 0.99), 0.31
CDAI 0.01 (−0.04 to 0.05), 0.73 0.00 (−0.01 to 0.01), 0.41 0.00 (−0.00 to 0.00), 0.35 −0.00 (−0.00 to 0.00), 0.14 1.27 (0.28 to 2.26), 0.012 0.00 (−0.01 to 0.01), 0.72 0.12 (−0.16 to 0.39), 0.41
Prednisone intake 2.56 (−0.31 to 5.42), 0.080 1.69 (1.09 to 2.28), 0.000 0.19 (0.11 to 0.27), 0.000 0.96 (0.72 to 1.19), 0.000 −131 (−244 to −18), 0.023 0.34 (−0.02 to 0.70), 0.067 51 (31 to 70), 0.000
Methotrexate −9.9 (−44 to 25), 0.57 −0.11 (−0.47 to 0.25), 0.55 0.02 (−0.07 to 0.11), 0.73 0.05 (−0.15 to 0.25), 0.60 36 (−76 to 147), 0.53 −0.19 (−0.82 to 0.44), 0.55 −5 (−36 to 25), 0.73
Anti-TNF-α drugs 28 (−16 to 72), 0.21 0.21 (−0.26 to 0.67), 0.39 −0.10 (−0.21 to 0.02), 0.11 0.09 (−0.16 to 0.34), 0.48 30 (−113 to 173), 0.68 0.54 (−0.27 to 1.34), 0.19 −12 (−51 to 27), 0.55
  1. Abbreviations: ACPA Anticitrullinated peptide/protein antibody, CDAI Clinical Disease Activity Index, CRP C-reactive protein, DAS28 Disease Activity Score in 28 joints, DPP-4 Dipeptidyl peptidase 4, ESR Erythrocyte sedimentation rate, GIP Gastric inhibitory polypeptide, GLP-1 Glucagon-like peptide 1, HOMA2-%B Homeostatic model assessment of β-cell production calculated with C-peptide, HOMA2-IR Homeostatic model assessment calculated with insulin, SDAI Simplified Disease Activity Index, TNF-α Tumor necrosis factor-α. p<0.05 are depicted in bold