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Table 5 Glucose, insulin, C peptide, GIP and GLP-1 concentrations after meal test in RA patients and controls

From: Incretins in patients with rheumatoid arthritis

   Glucose p Insulin p C peptide p GIP p GLP-1 p
Maximum response Controls 102 (96-141) 0.11 27.2 (11.2-44.8) 0.49 4.98 (2.99-6.03) 0.20 1.49 (1.22-2.08) 0.73 0.59 (0.24-0.61) 0.73
  RA patients 134 (127-138) 26.8 (12.8-56.0) 5.85 (3.98-7.96) 1.48 (1.37-1.81) 0.48 (0.45-0.62)
Minutes to max. response Controls 30 (30-240) 0.39 30 (30-60) 0.36 30 (30-60) 0.029 150 (60-210) 0.08 60 (60-120) 0.34
  RA patients 75 (45-90) 45 (30-105) 75 (60-105) 45 (15-135) 45 (30-105)
AUC Controls 691 ± 78 0.006 92 ± 52 0.87 21 ± 7 0.23 9 ± 2 0.69 3 ± 1 0.34
  RA patients 843 ± 114 105 ± 84 35 ± 21 10 ± 2 3 ± 1
Early response AUC Controls 195 ± 39 0.34 39 ± 23 0.99 7 ± 2 0.87 2.2 ± 0.3 0.28 0.7 ± 0.4 0.78
  RA patients 217 ± 21 38 ± 29 7 ± 2 2.6 ± 0.6 0.8 ± 0.3
Late response AUC Controls 411 ± 44 0.054 33 ± 24 0.37 11 ± 3 0.12 6.0 ± 1.0 0.61 1.7 ± 0.8 0.40
  RA patients 507 ± 99 59 ± 48 23 ± 17 6.2 ± 1.2 2.0 ± 0.6
  1. Data expressed as median (interquartile range)
  2. AUC are depicted as average ± standard deviation
  3. Early response refers to the AUC from baseline to minute 60
  4. Late response refers to the AUC from minute 60 to minute 240
  5. Maximum response is expressed in the molecules units median and interquartile range
  6. Minutes to maximum response is expressed in median and interquartile range
  7. GLP-1: Glucagon-Like Peptide 1; GIP: gastric inhibitory polypeptide