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Table 2 Clinical features in patients with primary Sjögren’s syndrome with and without severe dysbiosis

From: Severe intestinal dysbiosis is prevalent in primary Sjögren’s syndrome and is associated with systemic disease activity

  Dysbiosis Index Score 1–4 (N = 33) Dysbiosis Index Score 5 (N = 9) p value
Age (years) 61 (50; 68) 62 (58; 71) 0.534
ESSDAI total score 5 (1; 10) 13 (5; 16) 0.049*
ClinESSDAI total score 5 (0; 9) 12 (4; 16) 0.049*
ESSPRI total score 6 (5; 8) 7 (6; 8) 0.224
IgG (g/L) 13.2 (10.0; 17.1) 12.4 (10.2; 22.0) 0.718
Complement component 3 (g/L) 1.01 (0.90; 1.21) 0.98 (0.79; 1.10) 0.608
Complement component 4 (g/L) 0.17 (0.14; 0.21) 0.11 (0.07; 0.14) 0.004**
Anti-SS-A antibody seropositives (%) 78 76 1.000
Anti-SS-A antibody seropositives (%) 45 56 0.714
Lip biopsy—focus score ≥ 1 (%) 85 86 1.000
Irritable bowel syndrome-like symptoms (%) 39 57 0.425
Fecal calprotectin (μg/g) 33 (20; 74) 110 (61; 330) 0.001**
Using glucocorticoids (%) 27 67 0.049*
Using anti-malarials (%) 24 44 0.406
Using proton pump inhibitors (%) 33 44 0.698
Using NSAIDs (%) 39 33 1.00
  1. Comparison of clinical characteristics in primary Sjögren’s syndrome patients with severe dysbiosis (Dysbiosis Index Score 5) vs subjects with eubiosis or mild to moderate dysbiosis (Dysbiosis Index Score 1-4). Results presented as median (interquartile range) or fraction of patients with abnormal findings (%)
  2. ClinESSDAI Clinical EULAR Sjögren’s Syndrome Disease Activity Index, ESSDAI EULAR Sjögren’s Syndrome Disease Activity Index, ESSPRI EULAR Sjögren’s Syndrome Patient Reported Index, EULAR European League Against Rheumatism, NSAID nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug
  3. *p < 0.05
  4. **p < 0.01