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Fig. 6 | Arthritis Research & Therapy

Fig. 6

From: Role of endoplasmic reticulum stress in the protective effects of PPARβ/δ activation on endothelial dysfunction induced by plasma from patients with lupus

Fig. 6

Effects of PPARβ/δ activation on endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-stress-induced endothelial dysfunction in human umbilical cord vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Nitric oxide (NO) production stimulated by the calcium ionophore A23187 (a) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production (b), measured by fluorescence in CM-H2DCFDA, in HUVECs incubated with ER-inducer tunicamycin for 24 h in the presence and/or in absence of 4-PBA, apocynin, VAS2870, GW0742, and GSK0660. Values are expressed as mean ± SEM (n = 5–6). **P < 0.01 vs healthy controls (Ctrol). #P < 0.05 and ##P < 0.01vs tunicamycin group without drugs. ++P < 0.01 vs GW0742 column

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