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Table 2 Ultrasound synovial features at baseline and associations with knee pain

From: Association between ultrasound-detected synovitis and knee pain: a population-based case–control study with both cross-sectional and follow-up data

  No knee pain Early knee pain Established knee pain p for trend
Effusion
 Mean ± SD (mm) 3.02 (2.10) 4.48 (3.64) 5.89 (3.48) < 0.0001
 ≥ 4 mm, n (%) 23 (24.47) 136 (45.64) 64 (62.14) < 0.0001
 ≥ 4 mm, OR (95% CI) 1 2.64 (1.57–4.45) 5.07 (2.74–9.38)  
 ≥ 4 mm, aOR (95% CI) 1 1.90 (1.07–3.39) 1.92 (0.92–4.00)  
Synovial hypertrophy
 Mean ± SD (mm) 0.65 (1.56) 2.01 (2.66) 3.57 (3.49) < 0.0001
 ≥ 4 mm, n (%) 5 (5.32) 69 (23.15) 44 (42.72) < 0.0001
 ≥ 4 mm, OR (95% CI) 1 5.43 (2.12–13.92) 13.27 (4.97–35.43)  
 ≥ 4 mm, aOR (95% CI) 1 3.17 (1.17–8.53) 4.97 (1.66–14.86)  
Power Doppler signals, n (%) 0 10 (3.36) 2 (1.94) 0.4252
  1. aOR odds ratios adjusted for age, gender, BMI, quadriceps strength and radiographic osteoarthritis scores, CI confidence interval, OR odds ratio, SD standard deviation