Skip to main content

Advertisement

Table 1 Participant baseline demographics and clinical features

From: The effect of kidney function on the urate lowering effect and safety of increasing allopurinol above doses based on creatinine clearance: a post hoc analysis of a randomized controlled trial

Variable Control/dose escalation (n = 93) Dose escalation/dose escalation (n = 90)
CrCL <30 ml/min (n = 14) CrCL ≥30 to <60 ml/min (n = 31) CrCL ≥60 ml/min (n = 48) CrCL <30 ml/min (n = 10) CrCL ≥30 to <60 ml/min (n = 40) CrCL ≥60 ml/min (n = 40)
Age yearsa 68.2 (14.2) 66.6 (9.3) 54.8 (11.9) 66.8 (12.5) 64.6 (9.6) 52.5 (12.1)
Male, n (%) 7 (50%) 25 (80.6%) 46 (95.8) 9 (90%) 34 (85%) 39 (97.5)
Ethnicity, n (%)
 NZ European 6 (42.9%) 13 (41.9%) 20 (41.7%) 2 (20%) 21 (52.5%) 14 (35%)
 Maori 3 (21.4%) 10 (32.3%) 9 (18.8%) 3 (30.0%) 13 (32.5%) 13 (32.5%)
 Pacific Island 4 (28.6%) 6 (19.4%) 17 (35.4%) 5 (50%) 5 (12.5%) 9 (22.5%)
 Asian 1 (7.1) 2 (6.5%) 1 (2.1%) 0 (0%) 1 (2.5%) 4 (10.0%)
 Other 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 1 (2.1%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%)
Duration of gout (years) 16.8 (14.8) 18.2 (14.7) 18.1 (11.9) 13.1 (11.2) 16.9 (11.2) 16.9 (11.2)
Baseline serum urate mg/dla 8.3 (1.5) 7.1 (1.6) 6.8 (1.5) 8.0 (1.6) 7.6 (1.6) 6.5 (1.3)
CrCL (ml/min) 19.8 (5.9) 44.3 (7.9) 82.4 (16.6 21.1 (6.7) 44.5 (8.1) 85.5 (17.7)
Body mass index (kg/m2)a 34.6 (7.2) 35.8 (8.3) 35.1 (7.5) 36.9 (8.4) 35.9 (8.4) 33.7 (6.8)
Baseline allopurinol dose mg/dayb 135.7 (100-250) 258.1 (150-400) 328.1 (200-600) 160.0 (100-300) 231.9 (100-600) 317.5 (150-600)
Allopurinol dose, n (%)
  ≤ 200 mg/day 13 (92.9%) 13 (41.9%) 5 (10.4%) 9 (90%) 25 (62.5%) 3 (7.5%)
  > 200–300 mg/day 1 (7.1%) 16 (51.6%) 33 (68.8%) 1 (10%) 13 (32.5%) 32 (80%)
  > 300 mg/day 0 (0%) 2 (6.5%) 10 (20.8%) 0 (0%) 2 (5%) 7 (7.8%)
Presence of palpable tophi, n (%) 10 (71.4%) 14 (45.2%) 22 (45.8%) 4 (40%) 13 (32.5%) 18 (45%)
Co-existing conditions, n (%)
 Obesityc 11 (78.6%) 23 (74.2%) 36 (75%) 8 (80%) 29 (72.5%) 27 (67.5%)
 Kidney stones 0 (0%) 1 (3.2%) 2 (4.2%) 1 (10%) 3 (7.5%) 1 (2.5%)
 Cardiovascular diseased 13 (92.9%) 14 (45.2%) 11 (22.9%) 5 (50%) 26 (65%) 10 (25%)
 Diabetes mellitus 8 (57.1%) 12 (38.7%) 13 (27.1%) 7 (70%) 18 (45%) 4 (10%)
 Hypertension 11 (78.6%) 29 (93.5%) 25 (52.1%) 9 (90%) 36 (90%) 22 (55%)
 Hyperlipidemia 12 (85.7%) 19 (61.3%) 27 (56.3%) 7 (70%) 22 (55%) 18 (45%)
Concurrent medications, n (%)
 Diuretic 13 (92.9) 19 (61.3%) 11 (22.9%) 7 (70%) 23 (57.5%) 8 (20.0%)
 Aspirin 11 (78.6%) 17 (54.8%) 13 (27.1%) 7 (70%) 23 (57.5%) 10 (25%)
Any anti-inflammatory prophylaxis 5 (35.7%) 15 (48.4%) 25 (52.1%) 4 (40%) 24 (60%) 23 (57.5%)
 Colchicine 2 (14.3%) 11 (25.5%) 22 (45.8%) 3 (30%) 13 (32.5%) 18 (45%)
 NSAID 0 (0%) 3 (9.7%) 6 (12.5%) 2 (20%) 4 (10%) 9 (22.5%)
 Prednisone 3 (21.4%) 8 (19.4%) 3 (6.3%) 1 (10%) 9 (22.5%) 2 (5%)
  1. CrCL creatinine clearance, NSAID non steroidal anti-inflammatory drug
  2. aMean (SD)
  3. bMean (range)
  4. cObesity defined as body mass index ≥30 kg/m2
  5. dCardiovascular disease defined as ischemic heart disease, heart failure or peripheral vascular disease