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Fig. 2 | Arthritis Research & Therapy

Fig. 2

From: Blockade of TGF-β/Smad signaling by the small compound HPH-15 ameliorates experimental skin fibrosis

Fig. 2

The histidine-pyridine-histidine ligand derivative HPH-15 antagonizes the phosphorylation of Smad3 in cultured human dermal fibroblasts. a and b Normal human fibroblasts were pretreated with dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) or DMSO-diluted HPH-15 (3 μM) for 1 h. Then, cells were stimulated with 10 ng/ml human transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) for the next 3 h. a Phosphorylation of Smad3 in the cultured human dermal fibroblasts was assessed by Western blot analysis. n = 4 per group. Values are normalized relative to control. All values represent mean ± SEM. ** p ≤ 0.01. b Human fibroblasts were immunostained for p-Smad3 (green). Nuclei (blue) was stained with 4′,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole. Scale bar = 100 μm. n = 3 per group. GAPDH Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase

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