The potential mechanisms by which miR-146a influences gouty arthritis. TNF receptor associated factor 6 (TRAF6) and interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase (IRAK1) gene and protein levels were measured by quantitative (q)RT-PCR (a) and western blot (b), respectively, in bone-marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs) from miR-146a knockout (KO) and wild-type (WT) B6 mice exposed to 250 μg/mL monosodium urate (MSU) for 0, 4, and 8 h. c qPCR was used to measure NACHT, LRR and PYD domains-containing protein 3 (NALP3), apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing CARD (ASC), and pro-caspase 1 gene levels in BMDMs exposed to 250 μg/mL MSU for the different time periods indicated. d Schematic shows how miR-146a might decrease IL-1β production by inhibition of TRAF6 and IRAK1 function. Values are the mean ± SEM of three individual experiments using cells from three different mice of each genotype; groups were compared using the t test. TLRs, toll-like receptors.