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Fig. 5 | Arthritis Research & Therapy

Fig. 5

From: Oxidative stress impairs energy metabolism in primary cells and synovial tissue of patients with rheumatoid arthritis

Fig. 5

Effects of primary rheumatoid arthritis synovial fibroblast cell (RASFC)-conditioned media on angiogenic responses of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). a Representative images demonstrating invasion, the formation of tube-like structures and migration of HUVEC cultured in the presence of basal or 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (4-HNE)-supplemented conditioned media. Magnification × 10 of photomicrographs demonstrating invasion, tube formation (arrows indicate connecting branches) and cell migration. b Bar graphs demonstrate an increase in the number of invading, proliferating and migrating HUVEC, a higher number of connecting branches formed between HUVEC, and greater angiopoietin 2 (Ang2) and platelet-derived growth factor subunit B (PDGF-B) release from HUVEC exposed to 4-HNE-supplemented conditioned media (n = 6). Data are presented as mean ± SEM. *p < 0.05 and ***p < 0.001, significant differences from basal level. hpf High-power field

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