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Table 1 Demographic characteristics of the study population and prevalence (95% CI) of comorbidities in gout cases at the time of first diagnosis and statistical comparisons between all gout patients and controls

From: Comorbidity in gout at the time of first diagnosis: sex differences that may have implications for dosing of urate lowering therapy

  Gout cases Controls PR (95% CI) (total gout cases – total controls) p value (total gout cases – total controls)
  Men (N = 9513) Women (N = 4600) Total (N = 14,113) Men (N = 43,730) Women (N = 22,052) Total (N = 65,782)   
Age at diagnosis (years), mean (SD) 65.3 (14.9) 71.1 (15.1) 67.2 (15.2) 64.4 (14.6) 70.7 (15.0) 66.5 (15.0)   
Level of education, N (%)
  ≤ 9 years 3560 (37.4) 2169 (47.2)   15,531 (35.5) 9419 (42.7)    
 10–12 years 4047 (42.6) 1655 (36.0)   17,349 (39.7) 7699 (34.9)   
  > 12 years 1766 (18.6) 690 (15.0)   10,254 (23.5) 4509 (20.5)   
Comorbidities, total (%) 74.4 81.2 76.6 52.8 61.3 55.7   
Comorbidities suggested to increase SU level (%) 52.2 62.8 59.1 25.7 31.7 27.7  
 Psoriasis, PR (95% CI) 3.6 (3.3–4.0) 4.0 (3.4–4.6) 3.7 (3.4–4.1) 2.7 (2.5–2.8) 2.8 (2.6–3.0) 2.7 (2.6–2.8) 1.4 (1.3–1.5) < 0.001
 Organ transplantation, PR (95% CI) 1.1 (0.9–1.3) 1.2 (0.9–1.5) 1.1 (1.0–1.3) 0.4 (0.3–0.5) 0.5 (0.4–0.5) 0.4 (0.4–0.5) 2.8 (2.3–3.4) < 0.001
 Renal disease, PR (95% CI) 12.2 (11.5–12.9) 11.1 (10.1–12.1) 11.8 (11.3–12.4) 5.1 (4.9–5.3) 3.4 (3.2–3.6) 4.5 (4.4–4.7) 2.6 (2.5–2.8) < 0.001
 Use of diuretics, PR (95% CI) 39.1 (37.8–40.4) 53.4 (51.3–55.5) 43.7 (42.7–44.8) 15.8 (15.5–16.2) 24.3 (23.6–25.0) 18.7 (18.4–19.0) 2.3 (2.3–2.4) < 0.001
 Obesity, PR (95% CI) 9.5 (8.9–10.1) 12.2 (11.2–13.2) 10.4 (10.0–11.0) 3.5 (3.3–3.7) 4.8 (4.5–5.1) 3.9 (3.8–4.1) 2.6 (2.5–2.8) < 0.001
 Alcoholism 5.1 (4.6–5.5) 1.8 (1.5–2.2) 4.0 (3.7–4.3) 2.9 (2.7–3.1) 0.9 (0.8–1.1) 2.2 (2.1–2.3) 1.8 (1.6–2.0) < 0.001
Other comorbidities (%) 69.3 76.9 71.8 48.4 57.3 51.3   
 Diabetes, PR (95% CI) 14.9 (14.1–15.7) 18.3 (17.1–19.6) 16.0 (15.4–16.7) 9.5 (9.2–9.8) 8.6 (8.2–9.0) 9.2 (9.0–9.4) 1.7 (1.7–1.8) < 0.001
 Hypertension, PR (95% CI) 64.5 (62.9–66.1) 72.3 (69.9–74.8) 67.0 (65.7–68.4) 41.4 (40.8–42.0) 50.2 (49.3–51.1) 44.3 (43.8–44.9) 1.5 (1.5–1.6) < 0.001
 Coronary heart disease, PR (95% CI) 19.5 (18.6–20.4) 18.2 (17.0–19.5) 19.1 (18.4–19.8) 13.7 (13.3–14.0) 11.8 (11.4–12.3) 13.0 (12.8–13.3) 1.5 (1.4–1.5) < 0.001
 Congestive heart failure, PR (95% CI) 16.2 (16.1–17.8) 21.4 (20.1–22.8) 18.4 (17.7–19.1) 6.5 (6.3–6.8) 7.7 (7.3–8.1) 6.9 (6.7–7.1) 2.7 (2.5–2.8) < 0.001
 Atrial fibrillation, PR (95% CI) 18.6 (17.7–19.5) 19.0 (17.8–20.3) 18.7 (18.0–19.5) 7.5 (7.3–7.8) 7.7 (7.3–8.1) 7.6 (7.4–7.8) 2.5 (2.4–2.6) < 0.001
 Stroke, PR (95% CI) 8.3 (7.7–8.9) 9.4 (8.6–10.3) 8.7 (8.2–9.2) 6.9 (6.6–7.1) 7.9 (7.5–8.3) 7.2 (7.0–7.4) 1.2 (1.1–1.3) < 0.001
 Thromboembolism, PR (95% CI) 9.7 (9.1–10.4) 13.6 (12.6–14.7) 11.0 (10.5–11.6) 5.4 (5.2–5.6) 7.3 (7.0–7.7) 6.0 (5.8–6.2) 1.8 (1.7–1.9) < 0.001
 Peripheral vascular disease, PR (95% CI) 4.5 (4.1–5.0) 5.5 (4.8–6.2) 4.8 (4.5–5.2) 2.2 (2.0–2.3) 2.6 (2.4–2.8) 2.3 (2.2–2.4) 2.1 (1.9–2.3) < 0.001
 Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, PR (95% CI) 4.9 (4.5–5.4) 6.5 (5.8–7.3) 5.5 (5.1–5.9) 2.3 (2.1–2.4) 3.2 (3.0–3.4) 2.6 (2.5–2.7) 2.1 (1.9–2.3) < 0.001
  1. CI confidence interval, PR prevalence ratio, SD standard deviation, SU serum urate