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Table 1 Characteristics of the included articles (n = 14)

From: Obesity, hypertension and diuretic use as risk factors for incident gout: a systematic review and meta-analysis of cohort studies

Article Country Study setting (study name) Age (years) Gender Ethnicity Years of follow-up Ascertainment of exposure Ascertainment of gout diagnosis
Prior et al. 1987 [10] New Zealand and Tokelau Population based ≥ 15 at baseline, ≥ 18 at first
follow-up
Men and women included, but numbers not specified 100% Tokelauan Up to 14 Hypertension: measurement of systolic and diastolic blood pressure History of ≥ 2 episodes of podagra with redness and swelling of first metatarsophalangeal joint
Roubenoff et al. (1991) [11]a USA Population based
(medical students)
(John Hopkins precursor study)
Median 22 Men: 1216 (91%); women: 121 (9%) White: 1301 (97%); non-white: 36 (3%) 40 Hypertension: self-reported SBP > 160 mmHg or DBP > 95 mmHg on two questionnaires or self-reported anti-hypertensive medication use Self-report followed by medical chart review
Hochberg et al. (1995) [12]a USA Population based (medical students)
(John Hopkins precursor study)
White: mean 26.1, SD 1.8; black: mean 29.0, SD 3.8 Men: 923 (100%) White: 571 (62%); black: 352 (38%) 26–34; mean 29 Hypertension: self-reported SBP > 160 mmHg or DBP > 95 mmHg on two questionnaires or self-reported anti-hypertensive medication use Self-report plus one of: history of MSU crystals or documented tophus or use of colchicine, probenecid or allopurinol
Grodzicki et al. (1997) [13]a UK Primary care
(general practice hypertension study)
18–65 Men: 1060 (50%); women: 1068 (50%) Not reported Average 8 Hypertension: not reported
Diuretic use: not reported
Diagnosed by GP
Choi et al. (2005) [14]a USA Population based (male healthcare professionals)
(health professionals follow-up study)
40–75,
mean 54
Men: 47,150 (100%) 91% white 12 Obesity: self-reportedHypertension: self-reported physician-diagnosed hypertension
Diuretic use: self-reported
Self-report followed by ACR criteria (≥ 6/11 for diagnosis of gout)
Bhole et al. (2010) [15]a USA Population based
(Framington heart study)
Men: mean 46, SD 9; women: mean 47, SD 9 Men: 1951 (44%); women: 2476 (56%) Not reported 52; median 28 Obesity: measured height and weight, BMI calculatedHypertension: average of two readings SBP ≥ 140 mmHg or DBP ≥ 90 mmHgDiuretic use: self-reported Clinical diagnosis at any follow-up study examination
McAdams DeMarco et al. (2011) [16]a USA Population based
(CLUE II study)
13–87 at baseline, ≥ 24 at first follow-up Men: 6100 (39%); women: 9433 (61%) White: 15,533 (100%) 18 Obesity: self-reported Self-report
Maynard et al. (2012) [17]a USA Population based
(ARIC)
45–64 Women: 6263 (100%) White: 4676 (75%); black: 1587 (25%) 9 Obesity: self-reported Self-report
Chen et al.
(2012) [18]a
Taiwan Population based
(health insurance database)
Men: mean 46, SD 9; women: mean 47, SD 9 Men: 60,181 (45%); women: 72,375 (55%) Median 7.31 Hypertension: record linkage Record linkage: diagnostic code of gout from ICD-9 + 2× prescriptions of colchicine + prescription of urate-lowering drugs
McAdams-DeMarco et al. (2012) [25]a USA Population based
(ARIC)
45–64; mean 54, SD 5.7 Men: 4709 (43%); women: 6163 (57%) White: 8538 (79%); black: 2334 (21%) 9 Hypertension: self-report of anti-hypertension medications or measured high blood pressure Self-report
McAdams DeMarco et al. (2012) [20] USA Population based
(ARIC)
45–64; mean 54, SD 5.7 Men: 2445 (42%); women: 3344 (58%) White: 3998 (69%); black: 1791 (31%) 9 Diuretic use: self-report Self-report
Wilson et al. (2014) [21] USA Population based
(health insurance database)
18–89 Men: 1449 (48%); women: 1584 (52%) Up to 12 Diuretics: record linkage, chlorthalidone vs hydrochlorothiazide Record linkage: ICD-9 for gout or allopurinol, febuxostat, colchicine, probenecid
Pan et al. (2015) [22]a Singapore Population based
(Singapore Chinese health study)
Hyp. 61.3 (median);
no Hyp. 59.3 (median)
Hyp. men:
4403 (40.7%);
no Hyp. men: 7982 (40.4)
12 Hypertension: self-report at recruitment interview Self-report and clinical verification
Burke et al. (2016) [23]a USA Population based
(ARIC)
≥ 65 No gout (n = 6535): men 43.4%;
gout (n = 230): men 52.2%
White: 100% 25 Hypertension: SBP ≥ 140 mmHg or DBP ≥ 90 mmHg, or use of a medication to treat hypertension
Diuretic use: self-report of medication use
Self-report
  1. ARIC Atherosclerosis Risk In Communities, ACR American College of Rheumatology, BMI body mass index, CLUE (Give us a Clue to Cancer) II study, DBP diastolic blood pressure, GP general practitioner, Hyp. hypertension, ICD-9 International Classification of Diseases, ninth revision, MSU monosodium urate, SBP systolic blood pressure, SD standard deviation
  2. aIncluded in meta-analysis (n = 7)