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Table 2 Before and after high-intensity interval training values, CIs, and effect sizes for cardiorespiratory fitness and physical function

From: Ten weeks of high-intensity interval walk training is associated with reduced disease activity and improved innate immune function in older adults with rheumatoid arthritis: a pilot study

  Pre-HIIT Post-HIIT 95% CI (lower, upper) p Value Effect size (d)
Cardiorespiratory fitness
 VO2peak, L/min 1.75 ± 0.4 1.89 ± 0.4 (− 3.0, − 1.8) < 0.001 2.86
 VO2peak, ml/kg/min 25.0 ± 6.6 27.1 ± 7.0 (− 0.2, − 0.13) < 0.001 3.19
Physical function
 Physical activity questionnaires      
  IPEQ 30.4 ± 24.6 28.8 ± 16.7 (− 11.2, 14.4) 0.788 0.08
  SBAS 2.5 ± 0.5 2.9 ± 1.0 (− 0.9, 0.1) 0.096 0.52
 Grip strength, kg 18.3 ± 7.2 19.0 ± 8.1 (− 1.7, 0.3) 0.166 0.43
 Berg Balance Score 54.4 ± 4.0 54.7 ± 3.2 (− 1.2, 0.7) 0.555 0.18
 TUG, s 8.8 ± 1.8 8.4 ± 1.9 (− 0.1, 0.1) 0.084 0.54
 400-m walk test, s 251 ± 62 233 ± 51 (9.0, 27.4) 0.001 1.30
 30-s chair stands, n 14 ± 4 17 ± 5 (− 4.0, − 0.2) 0.035 0.70
  1. Abbreviations: HIIT High-intensity interval training, IPEQ Incidental and Planned Exercise Questionnaire, SBAS Stanford Brief Activity Survey, TUG Timed Up and Go, VO2peak Aerobic capacity
  2. Data are mean ± SD