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Table 5 Effect of TNFi on spinal radiographic progression according to NSAID use, with and without propensity score adjustment

From: A five-year prospective study of spinal radiographic progression and its predictors in men and women with ankylosing spondylitis

  Univariate OR (95% CI) p value OR (95% CI) with PSa p value
Progression ≥ 2 mSASSS units
 TNFi vs. no TNFi and no NSAID 3.33 (0.46 to 24.05) 0.23 3.06 (0.27 to 34.70) 0.37
 TNFi vs. no TNFi and low NSAID 1.24 (0.46 to 3.38) 0.67 1.16 (0.40 to 3.40) 0.79
 TNFi vs. no TNFi and high NSAID 0.74 (0.17 to 3.31) 0.70 0.48 (0.09 to 2.48) 0.38
New syndesmophytes
 TNFi vs. no TNFi and no NSAID 1.25 (0.14 to 10.94) 0.84 2.51 (0.17 to 38.18) 0.51
 TNFi vs. no TNFi and low NSAID 1.26 (0.42 to 3.81) 0.67 1.44 (0.44 to 4.70) 0.55
 TNFi vs. no TNFi and high NSAID 1.04 (0.23 to 4.69) 0.96 0.84 (0.17 to 4.21) 0.83
  1. BASDAI Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index, BMI body mass index, CRP C-reactive protein, HLA-B27 Human leucocyte antigen B27, mSASSS modified Stoke Ankylosing Spondylitis Spine Score, NSAID non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, PS propensity score, TNFi tumor necrosis factor inhibitor
  2. aVariables included in PS are sex, HLA-B27, baseline CRP, BASDAI, mSASSS, smoking pack-years, BMI category, symptom duration and age of onset of symptoms