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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of patients with RA (cases, n = 1721) and controls (n = 3667) in the EIRA study, overall and by categories of the Mediterranean diet score as defined according to Trichopoulou et al. [17]

From: Mediterranean diet and risk of rheumatoid arthritis: a population-based case-control study

Med score RA cases Controls
Overall 0–2 3 4–5 6–9 Overall 0–2 3 4–5 6–9
Number 1721 351 327 629 414 3667 574 636 1424 1033
Female, n (%) 1251 (72.7) 228 (65.0) 242 (74.0) 458 (72.8) 323 (78.0) 2647 (72.2) 411 (71.6) 441 (69.3) 1026 (72.1) 769 (74.4)
Age, mean (std) 53.4 (13.5) 53.1 (14.5) 52.2 (14.3) 53.1 (13.6) 55.2 (11.4) 53.3 (13.3) 51.1 (14.8) 53.2 (13.6) 53.5 (13.0) 54.5 (12.6)
Current smoking, n (%) 409 (23.8) 125 (35.6) 92 (28.1) 132 (20.0) 60 (14.5) 543 (14.8) 122 (21.3) 116 (18.2) 210 (14.8) 95 (9.2)
Sedentary physical activity, n (%) 317 (18.4) 78 (22.2) 79 (24.2) 109 (17.3) 51 (12.3) 458 (12.5) 110 (19.2) 94 (14.8) 161 (11.3) 93 (9.0)
Education > 12 years, n (%) 955 (55.5) 150 (42.7) 176 (53.8) 345 (54.9) 284 (68.6) 2161 (58.9) 279 (48.6) 336 (52.8) 859 (60.3) 687 (66.5)
BMI, mean (std) 25.7 (4.6) 25.5 (4.9) 25.6 (4.3) 26.1 (4.7) 25.3 (4.5) 25.4 (5.0) 25.6 (4.8) 25.6 (4.2) 25.5 (4.2) 25.1 (6.4)
Use of supplements, n (%) 858 (50.1) 153 (44.1) 146 (44.8) 316 (50.3) 243 (58.8) 1616 (44.4) 214 (37.7) 260 (41.1) 624 (44.1) 518 (50.5)
Total energy intake, mean kcal/day (std) 1924 (735) 1848 (721) 1829 (730) 1949 (824) 2025 (574) 1897 (719) 1770 (763) 1776 (684) 1892 (743) 2048 (652)
Vegetables, servings/day (std) 3.07 (2.00) 1.60 (0.99) 2.41 (1.57) 3.26 (1.80) 4.53 (2.12) 3.22 (2.24) 1.78 (1.17) 2.25 (1.59) 3.22 (2.16) 4.61 (2.31)
Legumes, servings/day (std) 0.22 (0.26) 0.10 (0.14) 0.14 (0.15) 0.23 (0.24) 0.38 (0.33) 0.24 (0.31) 0.09 (0.09) 0.13 (0.16) 0.23 (0.27) 0.41 (0.41)
Fruit and nuts, servings/day (std) 1.57 (1.39) 0.76 (0.70) 1.11 (1.16) 1.61 (1.23) 2.53 (1.62) 1.67 (1.42) 0.82 (0.77) 1.15 (1.06) 1.69 (1.43) 2.42 (1.49)
Cereals, servings/day (std) 2.78 (1.90) 2.04 (1.76) 2.63 (1.88) 2.90 (1.91) 3.36 (1.79) 2.72 (1.83) 2.01 (1.71) 2.48 (1.86) 2.73 (1.82) 3.23 (1.73)
Fish, servings/day (std) 0.48 (0.44) 0.28 (0.16) 0.36 (0.23) 0.51 (0.61) 0.68 (0.33) 0.49 (0.38) 0.28 (0.20) 0.36 (0.23) 0.47 (0.39) 0.69 (0.40)
Meat, servings/day (std) 1.28 (0.73) 1.24 (0.72) 1.28 (0.66) 1.31 (0.75) 1.25 (0.75) 1.28 (0.83) 1.28 (0.72) 1.25 (0.74) 1.33 (0.96) 1.25 (0.74)
Dairy products, servings/day (std) 3.30 (2.49) 4.63 (2.35) 3.57 (2.48) 3.15 (2.48) 2.20 (2.03) 3.03 (2.41) 4.32 (2.39) 3.58 (2.62) 2.90 (2.31) 2.16 (1.98)
Alcohol, g/day (std) 7.06 (7.95) 5.15 (7.94) 6.98 (8.28) 7.28 (7.97) 8.38 (7.37) 8.48 (8.70) 6.20 (9.28) 7.95 (9.27) 8.54 (8.60) 9.94 (7.85)
Monoansaturated to saturated fat ratio (std) 0.78 (0.14) 0.69 (0.09) 0.74 (0.12) 0.80 (0.14) 0.86 (0.15) 0.79 (0.15) 0.70 (0.10) 0.74 (0.13) 0.80 (0.14) 0.87 (0.15)
  1. RA rheumatoid arthritis, Med score Mediterranean diet score, std standard deviation, BMI body mass index