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Table 3 Regression results of definite neuropathic-like knee pain versus possible- and non-neuropathic-like knee pain

From: Neuropathic-like knee pain and associated risk factors: a cross-sectional study in a UK community sample

   OR (95% CI)
Non-NKP Possible NKP Definite NKP
Crude Adjusted Crude Adjusted
(n = 1685) (n = 462)   (n = 366)  
Age 1 (Reference) 0.99 (0.99; 1.00) 0.99 (0.98; 1.00)
Body mass index 1 1.04 (1.02; 1.06) 1.08 (1.06; 1.10)
Gender 1 0.98 (0.79; 1.21) 1.50 (1.18; 1.91)
Pain severity 1 1.37 (1.31–1.45) 2.08 (1.93; 2.25)
Putative factors
 High-risk occupation 1 1.63 (1.33; 2.01) 1.57 (1.24; 1.99) 1.29 (1.03–1.61) 1.17 (0.89; 1.54)
 Significant injury 1 1.42 (1.14; 1.77) 1.36 (1.07; 1.73) 1.47 (1.15; 1.88) 1.50 (1.12; 2.00)
 2D:4D digit ratio 1 1.00 (0.99; 1.00) 0.99 (0.99; 1.00) 1.00 (0.99; 1.00) 0.99 (0.99; 1.00)
 Nodal OA 1 1.30 (0.98; 1.72) 1.34 (0.98; 1.83) 1.99 (1.50; 2.63) 1.80 (1.28; 2.53)
Comorbidities
 Hypertension 1 1.34 (1.08; 1.65) 1.18 (0.92; 1.52) 1.35 (1.07; 1.70) 1.09 (0.80; 1.47)
 Hyperlipidaemia 1 1.22 (0.98; 1.53) 1.12 (0.86; 1.44) 1.54 (1.22; 1.95) 1.36 (1.01; 1.84)
 Stroke 1 1.00 (0.55; 1.83) 0.97 (0.52; 1.84) 1.37 (0.76; 2.46) 0.92 (0.44; 1.92)
 Diabetes 1 1.62 (1.20; 2.19) 1.32 (0.94; 1.85) 2.19 (1.62; 2.96) 1.52 (1.04; 2.23)
 Multiple regional pain 1 1.76 (1.43; 2.18) 1.63 (1.29; 2.05) 2.52 (2.00; 3.17) 1.93 (1.46; 2.53)
Central factors
 Anxiety 1 2.20 (1.74; 2.76) 1.79 (1.38; 2.32) 5.08 (3.99; 6.45) 3.17 (2.38; 4.23)
 Depression 1 2.66 (1.99; 3.55) 1.96 (1.42; 2.70) 6.20 (4.71; 8.15) 2.99 (2.14; 4.19)
Pain Catastrophising
 Scale
  Lowest tertile 1 Reference    
  Middle tertile   2.46 (1.64; 3.67) 2.03 (1.32; 3.10) 2.01 (1.05; 3.84) 1.31 (0.66; 2.60)
  Highest tertile   5.91 (4.05; 8.62) 3.63 (2.40; 5.48) 16.12 (9.12; 28.49) 5.37 (2.93; 9.84)
 Fatigue
  Lowest tertile 1 Reference    
  Middle tertile   1.41 (1.03; 1.93) 1.15 (0.82; 1.62) 3.22 (1.89; 5.48) 2.45 (1.38; 4.38)
  Highest tertile   2.77 (2.05; 3.75) 1.91 (1.38; 2.66) 11.12 (6.69; 18.47) 5.37 (3.08; 9.35)
  Fibromyalgia 1 1.87 (1.16; 3.03) 1.56 (0.92; 2.66) 5.79 (3.90; 8.61) 4.07 (2.49; 6.66)
Treatment
 Opioids 1 1.98 (1.54; 2.54) 1.46 (1.11; 1.92) 3.03 (2.35;3.91) 1.70 (1.26; 2.31)
 NSAIDs 1 1.22 (0.82; 1.81) 1.01 (0.66; 1.56) 2.03 (1.40; 2.95) 1.75 (1.13; 2.72)
 OTC painkillers 1 1.66 (1.33; 2.07) 1.39 (1.09; 1.78) 1.76 (1.38; 2.24) 1.28 (0.96; 1.71)
 Aspirin 1 1.31 (0.96; 1.79) 1.12 (0.79; 1.60) 1.66 (1.20; 2.28) 1.40 (0.94; 2.09)
 Current statin use 1 0.99 (0.99; 1.00) 0.99 (0.99; 1.00) 0.99 (0.99; 1.00) 1.00 (0.99; 1.00)
 Statin use ever 1 0.99 (0.99;0.99) 0.99 (0.99; 1.00) 0.99 (0.99; 0.99) 0.99 (0.99; 1.00)
 Injection 1 2.04 (1.59; 2.61) 1.66 (1.27; 2.18) 3.52 (2.74; 4.52) 2.39 (1.76; 3.23)
Pain experience
 ICOAP overall 1 1.04 (1.03; 1.05) 1.03 (1.02; 1.04) 1.08 (1.07; 1.09) 1.05 (1.04; 1.07)
 ICOAP intermittent 1 1.04 (1.03; 1.04) 1.02 (1.02; 1.03) 1.07 (1.06; 1.08) 1.04 (1.04; 1.05)
 ICOAP constant 1 1.04 (1.03; 1.04) 1.05 (1.04; 1.06) 1.07 (1.06; 1.08) 1.05 (1.04; 1.06)
  1. Abbreviations: ICOAP Intermittent and Constant Osteoarthritis Pain measure, NKP Neuropathic-like knee pain, NSAIDs Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, OA Osteoarthritis, OTC Over the counter
  2. Non-NKP is non-neuropathic-like knee pain; likely NKP is likely neuropathic pain; and definite NKP is definite neuropathic-like knee pain
  3. The non-KP group is the referent group, and hence a ‘1’ represents this in the table
  4. Note: Significant associations are highlighted in bold. For comparison purposes, we only present crude and age-, gender-, BMI- and pain severity-adjusted OR for each factor