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Table 2 Baseline patient characteristics in relation to low BMD at baseline

From: Low bone mineral density predicts the formation of new syndesmophytes in patients with axial spondyloarthritis

Variable Low BMD at baseline p value
No (n = 100) Yes (n = 19)
Age (years) 35 ± 9 32 ± 11 0.245
Male sex 75 (75) 16 (84) 0.558
BMI (kg/m2) 23.1 ± 3.2 23.5 ± 4.2 0.671
Current smoking 30 (30) 6 (32) 1.000
Alcohol ≥ 3 units/day 3 (3) 0 (0) 1.000
Symptom duration (years) 8 ± 7 9 ± 8 0.615
Family history of axSpA 10 (10) 2 (11) 1.000
HLA B27-positive 92 (92) 18 (95) 1.000
Peripheral arthritis 24 (24) 3 (16) 0.559
Radiographic sacroiliitis 73 (73) 17 (90) 0.154
BASDAI score (range, 0–10) 3.9 ± 2.2 3.8 ± 2.0 0.849
BASFI score 1.7 ± 2.1 1.9 ± 2.0 0.672
ESR (mm/h) 21 ± 20 32 ± 18 0.019
CRP (mg/L) 7.4 ± 13.4 18.0 ± 19.2 0.032
ASDAS-ESR 2.5 ± 1.2 2.9 ± 1.0 0.169
ASDAS-CRP 2.1 ± 1.3 2.7 ± 1.2 0.051
mSASSS 7 ± 14 11 ± 16 0.215
Number of syndesmophytes 2.1 ± 4.7 3.1 ± 5.6 0.430
Presence of syndesmophytes 28 (28) 6 (32) 0.785
Patients on NSAIDs 88 (88) 18 (95) 0.690
Patients on sulfasalazine 33 (33) 9 (47) 0.296
Patients on TNF inhibitors 28 (28) 8 (42) 0.227
Patients on bisphosphonate 0 (0) 2 (11) 0.024
Patients on calcium 10 (10) 7 (37) 0.006
Patients on vitamin D 10 (10) 8 (42) 0.002
  1. Data presented as n (%) or mean ± standard deviation
  2. BMD bone mineral density, BMI body mass index, axSpA axial spondyloarthritis, BASDAI Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index, BASFI Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Functional Index, ESR erythrocyte sedimentation rate, CRP C-reactive protein, ASDAS Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Score, mSASSS modified Stoke Ankylosing Spondylitis Spinal Score, NSAID non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, TNF tumour necrosis factor