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Table 1 Study participant characteristics

From: The presence of anti-nuclear antibodies alone is associated with changes in B cell activation and T follicular helper cells similar to those in systemic autoimmune rheumatic disease

  HC Asymptomatic UCTD SARD     
ANA
N = 32
ANA+
N = 61
N = 35 Total
N = 59
SSc
N = 19
SLE
N = 10
SjD
N = 28
DM/MCTD
N = 2
Sex: n Female (%) 29 (91) 59 (97) 33 (94) 55 (93) 17 (89) 10 (100) 26 (93) 2 (100)
Age: mean ± SD 35.1 ± 11.8 44.1 ± 13.9 a 46.5 ± 16.3 50.7 ± 13.7 55.1 ± 12.9 37.3 ± 10.9 53.0 ± 12.3 44
Anti-malarials: n (%) 0 (0) 5 (8.2) 8 (22.8) 5 (8.5) 1 (5.3) 2 (20) 2 (7.1) 0 (0)
Ethnicity: n Caucasian (%) 12 (37.5) 36 (59.0) 24 (68.6) 39 (66.1) 13 (68.4) 5 (50) 20 (71.4) 1 (50)
Family history: n (%)b 1 (3.1) 15 (25.9) 7 (21.9) 15 (26.8) 4 (23.5) 1 (11.1) 9 (31.2) 1 (50)
ANA titer: median N/A 1/640c 1/640c > 1/640 > 1/640 > 1/640 1/640 > 1/640
Number of Abs: Mean ± SD N/A 0.74 ± 1.05c 0.94 ± 1.17c 1.92 ± 1.32 1.32 ± 0.80 2.7 ± 2.45 2.04 ± 0.63 2.5
  1. Abbreviations: HC healthy control, ANA anti-nuclear antibody, UCTD undifferentiated connective tissue disease, SARD systemic autoimmune rheumatic disease, SSc systemic sclerosis, SLE systemic lupus erythematosus, SjD Sjogren’s disease, DM/MCTD dermatomyositis or mixed connective tissue disease, N number, SD standard deviation, Abs antibodies
  2. aValues significantly (p < 0.05) different from ANA HC are in bold
  3. bFamily history of SARD or rheumatoid arthritis. Percentages are presented as a proportion of those whose family history is known
  4. cSignificantly (p < 0.05) different from SARD