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Table 1 Clinical characteristics, laboratory findings, and autophagy expression at baseline

From: Association between autophagy and inflammation in patients with rheumatoid arthritis receiving biologic therapy

  TNF-α inhibitors (n = 28) IL-6R inhibitor (n = 32) csDMARDs alone (n = 12) HC (n = 20)
Mean age (years) 56.7 ± 12.1 55.5 ± 14.1 58.1 ± 14.3 53.3 ± 11.4
Female (%) 22 (78.6%) 24 (75.0%) 10 (83.3%) 15 (75.0%)
RF positivity (%) 22 (78.6%) 20 (62.5%) 8 (66.7%) NA
ACPA positivity (%) 19 (67.9%) 18 (56.3%) 7 (58.3%) NA
ESR (mm/first hour) 44.4 ± 30.0* 35.8 ± 21.8 30.5 ± 22.6 NA
CRP (mg/dl) 2.3 ± 2.5* 2.0 ± 2.3 1.3 ± 1.4 NA
DAS28 at baseline 5.89 ± 0.59* 5.95 ± 0.70* 4.80 ± 0.71 NA
Daily steroid dose (mg) 6.3 ± 1.6 6.5 ± 1.5 5.6 ± 1.9 NA
Baseline csDMARDs
 MTX + SSZ + HCQ 23 (82.1%) 26 (81.3%) 10 (83.4%) NA
 SSZ + HCQ + Cyc 2 (7.1%) 3 (9.4%) 1 (8.3%) NA
 MTX + SSZ 1 (3.6%) 1 (3.1%) 0 (0.0%) NA
 MTX + SSZ + Cyc 1 (3.6%) 0 (0.0%) 1 (8.3%) NA
 MTX+ SSZ + HCQ + Cyc 1 (3.6%) 2 (6.2%) 0 (0.0%) NA
  1. Abbreviations: ACPA Anticitrullinated peptide antibodies, CRP C-reactive protein, csDMARDs Conventional synthetic disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs, Cyc Cyclosporine, DAS28 Disease Activity Score in 28 joints, ESR Erythrocyte sedimentation rate, HCQ Hydroxychloroquine, IL-6R Interleukin-6 receptor, MTX Methotrexate, NA Not applicable, RF Rheumatoid factor, SSZ Sulfasalazine, TNF-α Tumor necrosis factor-α
  2. Data are presented as mean ± SD, number (percent), or median (25th–75th quartiles)
  3. *p < 0.05 vs. HC by Mann-Whitney U test for between-group comparison of numerical variables