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Table 4 Prognostic factors of childhood Takayasu’s arteritis (c-TA) in univariable Cox regression analysis

From: Clinical course and prognostic factors of childhood Takayasu’s arteritis: over 15-year comprehensive analysis of 101 patients

Factors Event Vascular complication Flare Rehospitalization
HR (95% CI) p HR (95% CI) p HR (95% CI) p HR (95% CI) p
BMI 0.50 (0.31–0.82) 0.006 0.56 (0.35–0.89) 0.015 0.44 (0.23–0.84) 0.01 0.83 (0.51–1.34) 0.44
Age at admission 0.93 (0.82–1.06) 0.28 0.94 (0.83–1.07) 0.32 0.96 (0.83–1.12) 0.64 0.86 (0.75–0.98) 0.03
Male sex 0.91 (0.44–1.91) 0.81 1.12 (0.53–2.34) 0.76 0.99 (0.37–2.62) 0.98 1.35 (0.61–2.97) 0.45
Stroke 6.42 (2.08–18.89) 0.001 1.37 (0.48–3.93) 0.56 2.89 (0.85–9.85) 0.09 1.31 (0.39–4.38) 0.66
Heart failure 2.04 (1.10–3.82) 0.03 1.56 (0.84–2.90) 0.16 1.46 (0.65–3.27) 0.36 1.88 (0.98–3.60) 0.06
Myocardial ischemia/infarction 3.06 (0.73–12.87) 0.13 2.96 (0.71–12.40) 0.14 2.22 (0.29–16.74) 0.44 1.32 (0.18–9.71) 0.78
Hypertension 0.48 (0.26–0.88) 0.02 0.51 (0.28–0.93) 0.03 0.38 (0.18–0.82) 0.01 0.76 (0.38–1.54) 0.45
Renal insufficiency 0.47 (0.18–1.19) 0.11 0.52 (0.20–1.32) 0.17 0.57 (0.17–1.90) 0.36 0.52 (0.18–1.46) 0.21
Retinopathy 0.75 (0.40–1.41) 0.37 0.77 (0.41–1.43) 0.40 1.12 (0.52–2.43) 0.77 0.43 (0.21–0.89) 0.02
Steroids 0.75 (0.37–1.54) 0.44 0.995 (0.49–2.03) 0.99 1.26 (0.48–3.34) 0.64 1.81 (0.70–4.67) 0.22
Immunosuppressant 0.49 (0.15–1.59) 0.24 0.49 (0.15–1.60) 0.24 0.31 (0.04–2.29) 0.25 0.91 (0.32–2.59) 0.86
Antihypertensive agents 1.34 (0.67–2.66) 0.41 1.05 (0.54–2.04) 0.88 1.03 (0.43–2.43) 0.95 1.85 (0.77–4.43) 0.17
Antiplatelet drugs 0.52 (0.27–0.99) 0.05 0.61 (0.32–1.16) 0.13 0.44 (0.20–0.97) 0.04 0.60 (0.30–1.19) 0.14
Revascularization 0.44 (0.24–0.81) 0.009 0.45 (0.25–0.82) 0.009 0.28 (0.13–0.62) 0.002 0.47 (0.24–0.89) 0.02
Aortic regurgitation 1.45 (0.67–3.12) 0.34 1.36 (0.63–2.93) 0.43 1.37 (0.52–3.62) 0.53 1.08 (0.45–2.60) 0.86
Ascending aorta involvement 1.14 (0.48–2.70) 0.77 0.96 (0.40–2.29) 0.93 1.03 (0.35–3.01) 0.96 1.23 (0.54–2.82) 0.62
Aortic arch involvement 1.57 (0.73–3.41) 0.25 1.32 (0.61–2.85) 0.48 1.00 (0.34–2.92) 1.00 1.52 (0.70–3.33) 0.29
Descending aorta involvement 1.06 (0.56–1.98) 0.87 1.03 (0.55–1.91) 0.94 1.16 (0.53–2.53) 0.72 1.03 (0.52–2.02) 0.93
Abdominal aorta involvement 0.58 (0.31–1.10) 0.09 0.53 (0.29–0.99) 0.05 1.15 (0.54–2.46) 0.71 0.92 (0.49–1.75) 0.80
Renal artery involvement 0.55 (0.30–0.996) 0.049 0.43 (0.24–0.79) 0.007 0.40 (0.19–0.87) 0.02 0.48 (0.25–0.93) 0.03
Coronary artery involvement 3.05 (1.07–8.74) 0.04 3.16 (1.11–9.00) 0.03 2.73 (0.62–12.03) 0.18 1.65 (0.39–6.96) 0.50
Pulmonary artery involvement 1.51 (0.67–3.42) 0.32 1.55 (0.68–3.52) 0.29 1.32 (0.46–3.82) 0.61 1.99 (0.90–4.40) 0.09
Type IIb 1.73 (0.77–3.90) 0.19 2.03 (0.90–4.58) 0.09 3.13 (1.25–7.82) 0.01 1.37 (0.53–3.54) 0.52
Aneurysm 0.64 (0.23–1.79) 0.39 0.53 (0.19–1.49) 0.23 0.41 (0.10–1.76) 0.23 0.44 (0.13–1.42) 0.17
Vessel wall thickening 1.52 (0.77–3.00) 0.23 1.29 (0.66–2.51) 0.46 1.36 (0.59–3.14) 0.47 1.59 (0.82–3.09) 0.17
Elevated ESR 1.28 (0.68–2.43) 0.44 1.21 (0.64–2.29) 0.55 1.98 (0.92–4.31) 0.08 1.26 (0.64–2.47) 0.50
Elevated CRP 1.92 (1.01–3.64) 0.047 1.86 (1.00–3.47) 0.05 2.09 (0.95–4.58) 0.07 1.96 (1.02–3.79) 0.04
  1. Significant p values are shown in bold typeface
  2. BMI body mass index, CI confidence interval, CRP C-reactive protein, ESR erythrocyte sedimentation rate, HR hazard ratio