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Table 3 Incidence rates and hazard ratios for various lung diseases in individuals with prevalent systemic lupus erythematosus and general population comparators (2001–2013)

From: New-onset non-infectious pulmonary manifestations among patients with systemic lupus erythematosus in Sweden

  Prevalent SLE (n = 6908) General population (n = 37,046)  
Cases, n (%) Person-years Incidence rate per 1000 person-years (95% CI) Cases, n (%) Person-years Incidence rate per 1000 person-years (95% CI) Adjusted hazard ratio (95% CI)a
Any pulmonary disease 700 (10.1) 51,048 13.7 (12.7–14.8) 872 (2.4) 310,538 2.8 (2.6–3.0) 5.4 (4.9–6.0)
By specific pulmonary disease
 Interstitial lung disease 170 (2.5) 52,355 3.3 (2.8–3.8) 73 (0.2) 312,193 0.2 (0.2–0.3) 14.3 (10.8–18.8)
 ARDS and hemorrhage 51 (0.7) 52,954 1.0 (0.7–1.3) 54 (0.2) 312,245 0.2 (0.1–0.2) 5.8 (3.9–8.5)
 Pleural disorders 237 (3.4) 52,083 4.6 (4.0–5.2) 317 (0.9) 311,498 1.0 (0.9–1.1) 4.6 (3.9–5.5)
 Pulmonary hypertension 63 (0.9) 52,970 1.2 (0.9–1.5) 61 (0.2) 312,310 0.2 (0.2–0.3) 6.8 (4.7–9.6)
 Pulmonary embolism 174 (2.5) 52,544 3.3 (2.9–3.8) 293 (0.8) 311,543 0.9 (0.8–1.1) 3.8 (3.1–4.6)
 Diseases of the upper airway 62 (0.9) 52,841 1.2 (0.9–1.5) 92 (0.3) 312,066 0.3 (0.2–0.4) 4.2 (3.0–5.8)
 Pulmonary edema 34 (0.5) 53,094 0.6 (0.5–0.9) 53 (0.1) 312,380 0.2 (0.1–0.2) 4.3 (2.8–6.7)
  1. SLE systemic lupus erythematosus, CI confidence interval, ARDS acute respiratory distress syndrome
  2. aModel adjusted for age (continuous) and sex