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Fig. 6 | Arthritis Research & Therapy

Fig. 6

From: Impact of synthetic and biological immunomodulatory therapy on the duration of 17DD yellow fever vaccine-induced immunity in rheumatoid arthritis

Fig. 6

Phenotypic and functional memory biomarker signatures in patients undergoing immunomodulatory therapy after 17DD-YF vaccination. Overlaid biomarker signatures were employed for comparative analysis among groups at distinct time points after vaccination, including a 1–5 years, b > 5–9 years, and c ≥ 10 years. Those biomarkers above the 50th percentile observed in each time point were highlighted by black/gray background rectangles, to underscore those observed in CONT (black background), csDMARD (dark gray background), and cs+bDMARD (light gray background). The set of nine phenotypic and functional biomarkers (EMCD4, EMCD8, CMCD19, IFNCD4, TNFCD4, IL-5CD4, IFNCD8, TNFCD8, and IL-5CD8) selected for comparative analysis of duration of 17DD-YF memory after vaccination is tagged by a bold font format. Special attention is given to EMCD8 and IL-5CD4 (dashed frame), which were previously reported as the top two biomarkers for monitoring immunological memory to the 17DD-YF vaccine [15]. b Venn diagrams were constructed to further demonstrate the shared biomarkers observed among the reference [PV(day30–45)] and study groups. Letter “a” represents the biomarkers selectively observed in the reference group [PV(day30–45)]. Letters “b,” “c,” and “d” represent those biomarkers commonly observed in PV(day30–45)∩CONT, PV(day30–45)∩CONT∩cs+bDMARD, and PV(day30–45)∩CONT∩csDMARD, respectively, and letter “e” represents the biomarkers shared between PV(day30–45)∩csDMARD. Letter “d” represents the biomarkers shared between PV(day30-45)∩CONT; PV(day30-45)∩CONT∩csDMARD and PV(day30–45)∩CONT∩cs+bDMARD in the subgroup 1-5 years; Letter “e” represents the biomarkers shared between PV(day30-45)∩CONT; PV(day30-45)∩CONT∩csDMARD; PV (day30–45)∩CONT∩cs+bDMARD and those biomarkers seen exclusively in PV(day30-45) in the subgroup > 5-9 years. Letter “f” represents the biomarkers shared between PV(day30-45)∩CONT; PV(day30-45)∩csDMARD; and those biomarkers seen exclusively in PV(day30-45) in the subgroup ≥10 years

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