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Table 1 Baseline characteristics

From: Impact of urate-lowering drugs on the progression and recovery from chronic kidney disease among gout patients

  Entire cohort (n = 5860) Type of medication P value
Allopurinol (n = 532) Febuxostat (n = 1105) Other uricosuric agents (n = 4223)
n % n % n % n %
Age (years) (mean ± SD) 61.09 ± 15.29 61.68 ± 14.95 63.91 ± 15.00 60.28 ± 15.32 < .0001
Sex          0.0623
 Female 1259 (21.48) 94 (17.67) 233 (21.09) 932 (22.07)  
 Male 4601 (78.52) 438 (82.33) 872 (78.91) 3291 (77.93)  
CKD stage          < .0001
 CKD stage 1 1329 (22.68) 113 (21.24) 85 (7.69) 1131 (26.78)  
 CKD stage 2 1936 (33.04) 163 (30.64) 147 (13.30) 1626 (38.50)  
 CKD stage 3 2018 (34.44) 204 (38.35) 557 (50.41) 1257 (29.77)  
 CKD stage 4 577 (9.85) 52 (9.77) 316 (28.60) 209 (4.95)  
eGFR (mm/min/1.37 m2) (mean ± SD) 66.74 ± 28.63. 65.10 ± 28.39 45.53 ± 24.42 72.49 ± 26.99 < .0001
 CKD stage 1 (mean ± SD) 107.10 ± 12.91 107.96 ± 12.27 106.90 ± 13.21 107.02 ± 12.95  
 CKD stage 2 (mean ± SD) 74.28 ± 8.48 73.04 ± 8.76 72.19 ± 8.45 74.59 ± 8.43  
 CKD stage 3 (mean ± SD) 45.32 ± 8.54 45.56 ± 8.26 41.88 ± 8.10 46.81 ± 8.34  
 CKD stage 4 (mean ± SD) 23.38 ± 3.97 24.03 ± 4.07 23.06 ± 4.07 23.71 ± 3.76  
Serum UA level (mg/dl) (mean ± SD) 9.49 ± 4.45 8.30 ± 3.74 9.92 ± 4.82 9.53 ± 4.40 < .0001
Comorbidity
 Myocardial infarct 284 (4.85) 19 (3.57) 63 (5.70) 202 (4.78) 0.1602
 Congestive heart failure 898 (15.32) 70 (13.16) 195 (17.65) 633 (14.99) 0.0320
 Peripheral vascular disease 230 (3.92) 22 (4.14) 63 (5.70) 145 (3.43) 0.0025
 Cerebrovascular disease 1021 (17.42) 100 (18.80) 190 (17.19) 731 (17.31) 0.6785
 Diabetes mellitus 1760 (30.03) 191 (35.90) 412 (37.29) 1157 (27.40) < .0001
 Diabetes with chronic complications 713 (12.17) 85 (15.98) 220 (19.91) 408 (9.66) < .0001
 Cancers 636 (10.85) 54 (10.15) 139 (12.58) 443 (10.49) 0.1195
 Metastatic solid tumour 92 (1.57) 6 (1.13) 22 (1.99) 64 (1.52) 0.3640
 Hypertension 3892 (66.42) 377 (70.86) 819 (74.12) 2696 (63.84) < .0001
 Hyperlipidaemia 2587 (44.15) 235 (44.17) 469 (42.44) 1883 (44.59) 0.4414
Charlson comorbidity index (mean ± SD) 2.22 ± 2.18 2.48 ± 2.22 3.03 ± 2.46 1.98 ± 2.04 < .0001
Co-medication
 Anti-hypertensive drugs 2814 (48.02) 249 (46.80) 557 (50.41) 2008 (47.55) 0.2006
 Diuretics 1582 (27.00) 135 (25.38) 399 (36.11) 1048 (24.82) < .0001
 Insulin 357 (6.09) 39 (7.33) 116 (10.50) 202 (4.78) < .0001
 Hypoglycaemic agents 1329 (22.68) 148 (27.82) 319 (28.87) 862 (20.41) < .0001
 Lipid lowering agents 1920 (32.76) 180 (33.83) 374 (33.85) 1366 (32.35) 0.5493
 Aspirin 1299 (22.17) 117 (21.99) 244 (22.08) 938 (22.21) 0.9906
 Colchicine 2733 (46.64) 261 (49.06) 480 (43.44) 1992 (47.17) 0.0433
 Glucocorticoid* 1007 (17.27) 53 (9.96) 214 (19.37) 740 (17.52) < 0.001
 Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs* 1974 (33.86) 112 (20.06) 231 (20.09) 1631 (38.62) < 0.001
  1. Assessed before the first use of urate-lowering drug
  2. Assessed during the 3 months before the first use of urate-lowering drug
  3. *Dosing intervals were at ‘as-needed’ basis