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Table 2 Clinical factors affecting 1-year PCP incidence

From: Pneumocystis pneumonia in patients with rheumatic diseases receiving prolonged, non-high-dose steroids—clinical implication of primary prophylaxis using trimethoprim–sulfamethoxazole

  Univariable analysis Multivariable analysisa
HR (95% CI) p value Adjusted HR (95% CI) p value
Old age (≥ 70 years old) 4.4 (0.5–39.6) 0.183 b  
Male sex 1.5 (0.2–13.7) 0.702 b  
Disease duration (years) 0.9 (0.7–1.2) 0.482 b  
Initial steroid dose, mg (based on prednisone) 1.1 (0.9–1.4) 0.377 b  
Concomitant steroid-pulse treatment 75.0 (8.4–671.4) < 0.001 68.4 (5.3–876.0) 0.001
Concomitant cyclophosphamide treatment 12.2 (2.0–72.8) 0.006 1.5 (0.2–10.5) 0.707
Concomitant azathioprine 0.9 (0.1–7.8) 0.904 b  
Concomitant MMF 1.2 (0.1–10.6) 0.881 b  
Concomitant MTX 3.5 (0.6–21.1) 0.167 b  
Concomitant TNFi 4.6 (0.03–40.8) 0.395 b  
High cumulative steroid dosec (≥ 900 mg) 4.9 (0.8–29.0) 0.084 1.7 (0.1–4.8) 0.610
Interstitial lung disease 2.8 (0.3–24.7) 0.363   
Baseline lymphopeniad 10.7 (1.8–63.8) 0.010 6.3 (1.01–39.1) 0.049
  1. CI confidence interval, HR hazard ratio, MMF mycophenolate mofetil, MTX methotrexate, PCP pneumocystis pneumonia, TNFi tumor necrosis factor inhibitor
  2. aModel included clinical factors that showed significant association (p < 0.1) in the univariable analysis, and was adjusted for clustering
  3. bNot included in the multivariable model as a covariate
  4. cCumulative steroid (prednisone) dose during the previous 6 months
  5. dDefined as < 800 lymphocytes per microliter