Skip to main content

Table 1 Characteristics of the study patients before and after propensity score matching

From: The effect of pilocarpine on dental caries in patients with primary Sjögren’s syndrome: a database prospective cohort study

 Before matchingAfter matching
VariablePilocarpine (n = 1410)Non-user (n = 3563)SMDPilocarpine (n = 1014)Non-user (n = 2028)SMD
Characteristic
 Age at diagnosis of newly onset pSS (years)57.0 ± 13.552.9 ± 14.60.29654.7 ± 13.354.2 ± 13.50.034
Age group
 ≤ 40 years156 (11.1)722 (20.3)− 0.255146 (14.4)288 (14.2)0.006
 41–65 years861 (61.1)2118 (59.4)0.033644 (63.5)1324 (65.3)− 0.037
 > 65 years393 (27.9)723 (20.3)0.178224 (22.1)416 (20.5)0.039
 Female gender1271 (90.1)3183 (89.3)0.027915 (90.2)1811 (89.3)0.031
Comorbidity in the previous year
 Diabetes mellitus146 (10.4)285 (8.0)0.08283 (8.2)163 (8.0)0.005
 Chronic kidney disease78 (5.5)180 (5.1)0.02146 (4.5)86 (4.2)0.014
 Cirrhosis9 (0.6)47 (1.3)− 0.0698 (0.8)11 (0.5)0.030
 Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease64 (4.5)151 (4.2)0.01547 (4.6)83 (4.1)0.027
 Stroke65 (4.6)134 (3.8)0.04236 (3.6)74 (3.6)− 0.005
 Dementia10 (0.7)42 (1.2)− 0.0498 (0.8)20 (1.0)− 0.021
Immunosuppressant during the 3 months of follow-up
 Prednisolone equivalent glucocorticoid dose of glucocorticoid users142.8 ± 307.3280.2 ± 785.1− 0.230157.1 ± 346.4176.3 ± 385.7− 0.052
 Systemic glucocorticoids533 (37.8)1501 (42.1)− 0.088406 (40.0)777 (38.3)0.035
 Azathioprine42 (3.0)244 (6.8)− 0.18041 (4.0)74 (3.6)0.021
 Cyclophosphamide6 (0.4)42 (1.2)− 0.0855 (0.5)7 (0.3)0.023
 Hydroxychloroquine1228 (87.1)2871 (80.6)0.178859 (84.7)1737 (85.7)− 0.026
 Methotrexate38 (2.7)133 (3.7)− 0.05932 (3.2)61 (3.0)0.009
 Pulse steroid therapy2 (0.1)36 (1.0)− 0.1152 (0.2)8 (0.4)− 0.036
 Potent immunosuppression87 (6.2)438 (12.3)− 0.21379 (7.8)149 (7.3)0.017
Healthcare utilisation due to pSS during the follow-up
 Number of ER visits per 5 years0.57 ± 2.120.76 ± 4.04− 0.0570.55 ± 1.930.64 ± 3.27− 0.036
 Number of admissions per 5 years0.34 ± 1.590.67 ± 2.81− 0.1450.42 ± 1.780.46 ± 2.31− 0.022
 Hospitalisation days per 5 years2.64 ± 17.026.45 ± 36.20− 0.1343.40 ± 19.713.82 ± 24.95− 0.019
 Follow-up (years)2.3 ± 1.52.5 ± 1.3−0.1892.7 ± 1.32.6 ± 1.30.011
 Propensity score0.335 ± 0.1220.263 ± 0.1140.6080.277 ± 0.0790.274 ± 0.0790.030
  1. SMD standardised mean difference, pSS primary Sjögren’s syndrome, ER emergency room