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Table 1 Characteristics of SSc patients by DU status^

From: Digital ulcers in systemic sclerosis: their epidemiology, clinical characteristics, and associated clinical and economic burden

Patient characteristics (n = 1085)DUNo DUp value
Mean ± SD or n(%)Mean ± SD or n(%)
Number of patients527 (48.6%)558 (51.4%) 
Demographics
 Age on SSc onset*, years43.6 ± 13.948.8 ± 14.0< 0.001
 Disease duration at recruitment, years12.2 ± 10.510.1 ± 9.90.001
 Gender female432 (81.9%)494 (88.5%)0.002
 Male95 (18.0%)64 (11.5%)0.002
 Disease subtype limited disease subtype342 (65.%)455 (81.8%)< 0.001
 Diffuse disease subtype184 (34.9%101 (18.2%)< 0.001
 Caucasian ethnicity476 (95.9%)502 (93.7%)0.09
 Follow-up, years5.2 ± 2.54.7 ± 2.40.001
 Alive at censorship363 (78.1%)412 (83.1%)0.05
Autoantibody profile**
 Anti-centromere pattern ANA (n = 1059)213 (41.2%)268 (49.5%)0.007
 Scl 70 + ve (n = 1046)96 (18.9%)50 (9.3%)< 0.001
 RNA polymerase III + ve (n = 693)57 (16.9%)42 (11.8%)0,05
Clinical manifestations***
 Telangiectasia ever504 (95.6%)452 (81.0%)< 0.001
 Calcinosis ever299 (56.7%)179 (32.1%)< 0.001
 Joint contractures321 (60.9%)153 (27.4%)< 0.001
 GIT involvement478 (90.7%)456 (81.7%)< 0.001
 SSc renal crisis19 (3.6%)14 (2.5%)0.293
 PAH#87 (16.5%)65 (11.7%)0.02
 ILD185 (53.1%)149 (26.7%)0.003
Co-morbidities
 CVA33 (6.3%)30 (5.4%)0.53
 Diabetes mellitus37 (7.0%)52 (9.3%)0.17
 PVD26 (4.9%)6 (1.1%)< 0.001
 Smoking history (current or ever)275 (52.2%)275 (52.2%)0.19
Medications
 Calcium channel blocker (CCB)414 (78.6%)311 (55.7%)< 0.001
PDE5 inhibitor
 Sildenafil99 (18.8%)46 (8.2%)< 0.001
 Tadalafil11 (2.1%)10 (1.8%)0.724
Endothelial receptor antagonist (ERA)
 Ambrisentan30 (5.7%)18 (3.2%)0.05
 Bosentan100 (18.9%)81 (14.5%)0.05
 Macitentan17 (3.2%)13 (2.3%)0.37
 Iloprost148 (28.1%)10 (1.8%)< 0.001
 Topical vasodilator71 (13.5%)10 (1.8%)< 0.001
HRQoL
 Physical component score (PCS)36.1 ± 10.439.2 ± 11.2< 0.001
 Mental component score (MCS)46.3 ± 12.846.1 ± 13.90.84
  1. Abbreviations: DU digital ulceration, PAH pulmonary arterial hypertension, ILD interstitial lung disease, GIT gastrointestinal tract, CVA cerebrovascular accident, PVD peripheral vascular disease, ACA anticentromere, Scl-70 antitopoisomerase-1, RNAP anti-RNA polymerase III, CCB calcium channel blockers, ERAs endothelial receptor antagonists, PDE5 phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors
  2. Health-related quality of life (HRQoL), was defined using the SF-36 study short form which provides a score range from 0 to 100.·Scores below 50 indicate worse HRQoL than the population normative score and every 10 points indicates 1 standard deviation.·These scores can be summarized into the physical component score (PCS) and mental component score (MCS), scores below 50 indicate worse HRQoL than the population normative score and every 10 points indicates 1 standard deviation
  3. ^DU status defined as the physicians reported presence of any history of DU
  4. *SSc onset defined as the first symptom of SSc (Raynaud phenomenon or other) *disease duration defined as from first non-Raynaud’s disease manifestation
  5. **n denotes the number of patients who underwent the bloods test thereby determining if they were positive or negative
  6. ***clinical manifestations defined as present if ever present from SSc diagnosis
  7. #PAH diagnosed on right heart catheterization (RHC) according to international criteria [11]