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Table 2 Risk for HF hospitalization, coronary heart disease, stroke, and all-cause mortality among REGARDS study participants

From: Gout is associated with an increased risk for incident heart failure among older adults: the REasons for Geographic And Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) cohort study

 Participants without gout (n = 5526)Participants with gout (n = 187)p value
HF hospitalization
 Events/person-years223/50,16320/1522 
 Incidence rate (95% CI)*4.4 (3.9, 5.0)13.1 (7.4, 18.9) 
 Hazard ratio (95% CI)
  Model 11 (reference)2.59 (1.63, 4.11)< 0.001
  Model 21 (reference)2.59 (1.63, 4.11)< 0.001
  Model 31 (reference)2.27 (1.41, 3.66)0.001
  Model 41 (reference)1.97 (1.22, 3.19)0.006
Coronary heart disease
 Events/person-years453/48,90424/1504 
 Incidence rate (95% CI)*9.3 (8.4, 10.1)16.0 (9.6, 22.3) 
 Hazard ratio (95% CI)
  Model 11 (reference)1.47 (0.97, 2.22)0.07
  Model 21 (reference)1.46 (0.97, 2.21)0.07
  Model 31 (reference)1.38 (0.91, 2.09)0.14
  Model 41 (reference)1.21 (0.79, 1.84)0.39
Stroke
 Events/person-years398/48,70214/1512 
 Incidence rate (95% CI)*8.2 (7.4, 9.0)9.3 (4.4, 14.1) 
 Hazard ratio (95% CI)
  Model 11 (reference)1.03 (0.60, 1.75)0.93
  Model 21 (reference)1.01 (0.59, 1.73)0.97
  Model 31 (reference)0.95 (0.56, 1.64)0.87
  Model 41 (reference)0.83 (0.48, 1.43)0.51
All-cause mortality
 Events/person-years1858/50,14285/1545 
 Incidence rate (95% CI)*37.1 (35.4, 38.7)55.0 (43.3, 66.7) 
 Hazard ratio (95% CI)
  Model 11 (reference)1.24 (1.00, 1.54)0.05
  Model 21 (reference)1.22 (0.98, 1.52)0.07
  Model 31 (reference)1.19 (0.95, 1.48)0.13
  Model 41 (reference)1.08 (0.86, 1.35)0.51
  1. Model 1 adjusts for age, race, and gender
  2. Model 2 adjusts for age, race, gender, region of residence, income, and education
  3. Model 3 adjusts for variables in model 2 plus alcohol consumption, current smoking, body mass index, physical activity, and dietary patterns
  4. Model 4 adjusts for variables in model 3 plus diabetes, chronic kidney disease, atrial fibrillation, systolic blood pressure, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, C-reactive protein, and use of antihypertensive medication, diuretics, statin, aspirin, and cyclooxygenase-2-selective and non-cyclooxygenase-2-selective nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs
  5. The median (maximum) follow-up for all-cause mortality was 10.0 (13.9) years
  6. CI confidence interval, HF heart failure, REGARDS REasons for Geographic And Racial Differences in Stroke
  7. *Per 1000 person-years