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Table 3 Association of serum urate levels with overall depression in older adults

From: Low levels of serum urate are associated with a higher prevalence of depression in older adults: a nationwide cross-sectional study in Korea

  Older men (n = 710) Older women (n = 909)
Odds ratio 95% CI Odds ratio 95% CI
Crude analysis
 Urate levels
  Low (Q1, Q2) 1.58 0.83, 3.04 1.72 1.26, 2.36
  High (Q3, Q4) Reference   Reference  
Adjusted analysis
 Age (per 1 year) 1.01 0.97, 1.06 1.00 0.97, 1.04
 CRP (per 1 mg/L) 1.02 0.96, 1.08 1.00 0.95, 1.05
 Urate levels
  Low (Q1, Q2) 1.44 0.74, 2.80 1.78 1.21, 2.61
  High (Q3, Q4) Reference   Reference  
Educational levels
 Elementary school 1.65 0.66, 4.14 0.90 0.41, 2.00
 Middle school 1.22 0.39, 3.81 1.36 0.59, 3.14
 High school 0.65 0.21, 1.98 1.65 0.71, 3.81
 College Reference   Reference  
Household income levels
 1st quartile 5.82 1.56, 21.77 1.42 0.76, 2.65
 2nd quartile 4.34 1.00, 18.73 0.89 0.49, 1.62
 3rd quartile 1.94 0.48, 7.92 0.90 0.47, 1.74
 4th quartile Reference   Reference  
Categorized BMI
 < 18.5 1.87 0.84, 4.17 2.21 0.71, 6.88
 18.5–24.9 Reference   Reference  
 ≥ 25 0.66 0.35, 1.26 0.87 0.56, 1.36
Presence of chronic disease
 No Reference   Reference  
 Yes 1.15 0.56, 2.34 1.67 1.04, 2.70
Lifetime diagnosis of depression
 No Reference   Reference  
 Yes 62.37 8.43, 461.35 13.84 6.62, 28.91
Perceived health status
 Very good or good Reference   Reference  
 Fair, poor, or very poor 4.81 2.39, 9.69 2.91 1.49, 5.69
Perceived stress
 No or mild Reference   Reference  
 Much or very much 5.46 2.84, 10.50 3.79 2.48, 5.79
Smoking status
 Non-smoker Reference   Reference  
 Current smoker 1.14 0.61, 2.12 1.27 0.47, 3.44
Drinking status
 Non-drinker Reference   Reference  
 Current drinker 1.15 0.62, 2.12 0.91 0.60, 1.39
  1. All values are rounded to two decimal places
  2. Bold values denote statistical significance
  3. BMI body mass index, CI confidence interval, CRP C-reactive protein