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Table 1 Demographic and clinical characteristics of study subjects

From: Urinary activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule as a novel biomarker of lupus nephritis histology

 SLEHC
aLNaNRiLNiNR
N9659106328
Age (years) (mean ± SD)34.7 ± 11.735.8 ± 15.037.2 ± 17.743.8 ± 29.832.0 ± 11.6
Female, n (%)91 (94.8%)55 (93.2%)9 (90%)60 (95.2%)23 (82.1%)
Disease duration (years) (IQR)4.9 (8.1)2.1 (11.8)4.3 (9.7)2.8 (9.6)0 (0)
Clinical characteristics,n(%)
 Fever7 (7.3%)11 (18.6%)0 (0%)10 (15.8%)N/A
 Lymphadenopathy3 (3.1%)2 (3.4%)0 (0%)1 (1.6%)N/A
 Malar rash15 (15.6%)14 (23.7%)2 (20%)7 (11.1%)N/A
 Mucosal ulceration2 (2.1%)3 (5.1%)0 (0%)1 (1.6%)N/A
 Alpecia5 (5.2%)6 (10.2%)0 (0%)1 (1.6%)N/A
 Vasculitis6 (6.3%)5 (8.5%)0 (0%)1 (1.6%)N/A
 Raynoud’s phenomenon3 (3.1%)1 (1.7%)1 (10%)1 (1.6%)N/A
 NPSLE0 (0%)6 (10.2%)0 (0%)1 (1.6%)N/A
 Myositis0 (0%)1 (1.7%)0 (0%)0 (0%)N/A
 Arthralgia/arthritis5 (5.2%)13 (22.0%)0 (0%)3 (4.8%)N/A
 Endocarditis9 (9.4%)4 (6.8%)2 (20%)2 (3.2%)N/A
 PAH3 (3.1%)8 (13.6%)1 (10%)2 (3.2%)N/A
 ILD3 (3.1%)3 (5.1%)1 (10%)2 (3.2%)N/A
 Pleural effusion4 (4.2%)1 (1.7%)0 (0%)4 (6.3%)N/A
 Leukocytopenia10 (10.4%)17 (28.8%)0 (0%)6 (9.5%)N/A
 Hemolytic anemia0 (0%)2 (3.4%)0 (0%)1 (1.6%)N/A
 Thrombocytopenia6 (6.3%)14 (23.7%)1 (10%)8 (12.7%)N/A
 Gastrointestinal vasculitis0 (0%)0 (0%)3 (30%)3 (4.8%)N/A
rSLEDAI, median (IQR)8 (8)0 (0)0 (0)0 (0)N/A
SLEDAI, median (IQR)12 (8)8 (6)4 (3)4 (2)N/A
Laboratory tests, median (IQR)
 24-h urine protein (g/24 h)3.0 (4.4)0.2 (0.2)0.4 (0.7)0.1 (0.1)N/A
 ANA positive/tested82/8252/528/858/58N/A
 C3 (g/L)0.57 (0.39)0.60 (0.37)0.70 (0.67)0.77 (0.47)N/A
 C4 (g/L)0.10 (0.08)0.08 (0.11)0.14 (0.1)0.14 (0.13)N/A
 dsDNA (IU/mL)25.67 (27.10)28.56 (26.17)13.15 (27.85)25.07 (45.31)N/A
Renal pathology (ISN/RPS classification),n(%)
 Class I0 (0%)N/AN/AN/AN/A
 Class II1 (1.0%)N/AN/AN/AN/A
 Class III/III + V20 (20.8%)N/AN/AN/AN/A
 Class IV/IV + V54 (56.3%)N/AN/AN/AN/A
 Class V21 (21.9%)N/AN/AN/AN/A
 Class VI0 (0%)N/AN/AN/AN/A
Comorbidity,n(%)
 RA0 (0%)0 (0%)0 (0%)1 (1.6%)N/A
 SS2 (2.1%)2 (3.4%)1 (10%)4 (6.3%)N/A
 APS0 (0%)2 (3.4%)0 (0%)1 (1.6%)N/A
 Osteoporosis2 (2.1%)2 (3.4%)0 (0%)2 (3.2%)N/A
 AVN of femoral head10 (10.4%)4 (6.8%)0 (0%)1 (1.6%)N/A
 Hypertension20 (20.8%)1 (1.7%)1 (10%)5 (7.9%)N/A
 Diabetes mellitus3 (3.1%)2 (3.4%)0 (0%)1 (1.6%)N/A
 Hyperlipidemia4 (4.2%)1 (1.7%)0 (0%)0 (0%)N/A
  1. aLN active LN group, aNR active SLE without renal involvement group, iLN inactive lupus nephritis group, iNR inactive SLE without renal involvement group, HC healthy control group, NPSLE neuropsychiatric systemic lupus erythematosus, PAH pulmonary arterial hypertension, ILD interstitial lung disease, SLEDAI Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Disease Activity Index, rSLEDAI renal SLEDAI, ANA anti-nuclear antibody, C3 complement 3, C4 complement 4, RA rheumatoid arthritis, SS Sjogren’s syndrome, APS antiphospholipid syndrome, AVN avascular necrosis