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Table 4 Sensitivity analysis: factors associated with pure proliferative LN

From: Non-histologic factors discriminating proliferative lupus nephritis from membranous lupus nephritis

 Univariable analysisMultivariable analysis (model 1)Multivariable analysis (model 2)
 OR (95% CI)pOR (95% CI)pOR (95% CI)p
Age0.985 (0.954–1.017)0.351    
Female sex1.400 (0.281–6.976)0.681    
Hypertension1.043 (0.318–3.422)0.945    
Diabetes mellitusN/A0.999    
Mucocutaneous manifestations1.046 (0.347–3.153)0.936    
Musculoskeletal manifestations1.932 (0.526–7.097)0.321    
Neuropsychiatric manifestations0.304 (0.071–1.305)0.109    
Serositis3.535 (0.446–28.035)0.232    
Hematologic manifestations4.531 (1.248–16.453)0.0224.997 (0.819–30.479)0.0812.150 (0.408–11.333)0.367
Positive anti-Sm Ab0.718 (0.267–1.936)0.513    
Positive anti-Ro Ab1.051(0.381–2.904)0.923    
Positive anti-La Ab2.262 (0.618–8.279)0.218    
Positive anti-U1RNP Aba0.268 (0.083–0.859)0.0270.178 (0.034–0.922)0.0400.987 (0.978–0.996)0.007
Positive anti-dsDNA Aba8.385 (2.824–24.896)< 0.00119.591 (2.518–152.431)0.0041.008 (1.002–1.015)0.012
Positive lupus anticoagulant1.224 (0.328–4.572)0.763    
Positive anti-β2 glycoprotein I Ab0.337 (0.104–1.088)0.069    
Positive anti-cardiolipin Ab1.854 (0.504–6.819)0.353    
Low C3a14.891 (4.044–54.831)< 0.0012.216 (0.216–22.738)0.5031.004 (0.959–1.052)0.866
Low C4a5.421 (1.906–15.422)0.0021.763 (0.313–9.916)0.5200.947 (0.839–1.069)0.376
Albumin level0.898 (0.420–1.918)0.781    
Creatinine level11.857 (1.524–92.273)0.018    
GFR0.978 (0.961–0.995)0.0120.966 (0.941–0.992)0.0100.967 (0.942–0.992)0.011
Urine PCR0.999 (0.986–1.013)0.934    
Urine RBC of ≥ 5/HPF4.238 (1.515–11.852)0.0061.803 (0.358–9.087)0.4751.724 (0.299–9.952)0.542
Urine WBC of ≥ 5/HPF2.604 (0.917–7.391)0.072    
Urine cast4.381 (0.556–34.519)0.161    
SLEDAI-2K1.181 (1.067–1.308)0.0011.026 (0.884–1.190)0.7391.094 (0.899–1.330)0.370
  1. Ab antibody, anti-dsDNA anti-double-stranded DNA, GFR glomerular filtration rate, PCR protein/creatinine ratio, RBC red blood cell, HPF high power field, WBC white blood cell, SLEDAI-2K Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Disease Activity Index 2000, OR odds ratio, CI confidence interval, N/A, not applicable
  2. aAnalyzed as binary variables (anti-U1RNP Ab, positive/negative; anti-dsDNA Ab, positive/negative; C3, low/not low; C4, low/not low) in univariable analysis and multivariable analysis (model 1) and analyzed as continuous variables in multivariable analysis (model 2)