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Table 1 Eleven studies investigating the serum or plasma metabolome in SLE patients

From: Caution in studying and interpreting the lupus metabolome

Study Country Differential Metabolites* Biofluid Platform Patients Controls Corrections Confounding factors mentioned
Ouyang 2011 [5] China 27 Serum 1H-NMR 64 SLE 30 RA, 35 HC Age, sex, race M, S
Wu 2012 [16] USA 319 Serum LC/MS, GC/MS 20 SLE 9 HC Age, sex, race, BMI M, Co-M
Bengtsson 2016 [7] Sweden 20 Serum GC/MS 30 SLE 18 HC, 19 SSc, 20 pSS Age, sex, race M
Guleria 2016 [8] India 19 Serum 1H-NMR 22 SLE, 40 LN 30 HC Age, sex, race M
Yan 2016 [9] China 41 Serum GC/MS 80 SLE 57 HC Age, sex, race, BMI M
Li 2017 [12] China 23 Serum LC/MS 32 LN 30 INS, 28 HC Age, sex, race, BMI None
Shin 2017 [10] Korea 13 Plasma GC/MS 41 SLE 41 HC Age, sex, race M
Guleria 2018 [11] India 17 Serum 1H-NMR 18 LN 18 LNT, 30 HC Age, sex, race M
Li 2019 [14] China 50 Serum LC/MS 17 SLE 17 HC Age, sex, race None
Bellocchi 2019 [13] Italy 4 Plasma LC/MS 27 SLE 23 pSS, 11 PAPS, 26 UCTD, 27 HC Age, sex, race M
Zhang 2020 [15] China 55 Serum LC/MS 32 SLE 25 HC Age, sex, race, BMI M
  1. Co-M co-morbidities, GC/MS gas chromatography mass spectrometry, HC healthy control, INS idiopathic nephrotic syndrome, LC/MS liquid chromatography mass spectrometry, LN lupus nephritis, LNT lupus nephritis after treatment, M medications, NMR1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, PAPS primary anti-phospholipid syndrome, pSS primary Sjögren’s syndrome, RA rheumatoid arthritis, S smoking, SLE systemic lupus erythematosus, SSc systemic sclerosis, UCTD undifferentiated connective tissue disease
  2. *Differentially expressed metabolites between SLE (or LN if all patients were LN) and HC