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Table 3 Analysis of morphological and compositional imaging features of lumbar intervertebral disks (IVDs)

From: Functional MR imaging beyond structure and inflammation—radiographic axial spondyloarthritis is associated with proteoglycan depletion of the lumbar spine

Score   Segment p value
L1/2 L2/3 L3/4 L4/5 L5/S1 Overall
gagCEST values [%] Patients 2.7 ± 1.7 2.1 ± 1.7 1.9 ± 1.6 1.8 ± 1.4 1.9 ± 2.0 2.0 ± 1.7 0.001
Volunteers 3.1 ± 1.7 2.2 ± 1.6 2.1 ± 1.6 2.4 ± 1.7 2.1 ± 2.3 2.4 ± 1.8
Pfirrmann Score [1–5] Patients 2.4 ± 0.7 2.5 ± 0.8 2.4 ± 0.7 2.5 ± 0.6 2.7 ± 0.8 2.5 ± 0.7 0.119
Volunteers 2.1 ± 0.5 2.3 ± 0.7 2.4 ± 0.6 2.4 ± 0.6 2.6 ± 0.7 2.4 ± 0.6
SPARCC acute inflammation [0–12] Patients 1 ± 2.4 0.4 ± 1.3 0.2 ± 1 0.6 ± 1.6 0.6 ± 2.3 0.6 ± 1.8 0.318
Fatty depositions [0–12] Patients 4.3 ± 3.9 3.4 ± 2.8 3.9 ± 3.2 4.2 ± 3.1 3.8 ± 3.1 3.9 ± 3.2 0.723
Syndesmophytes [0–2] Patients 1.3 ± 1.3 1.2 ± 1.2 1.3 ± 1.1 1.2 ± 1.2 1.4 ± 1.4 1.3 ± 1.2 0.894
  1. The mean imaging measures as a function of the study cohort (i.e., patient and volunteer) and intervertebral disk segment level. Data are means ± standard deviations. The mean values of the glycosaminoglycan chemical exchange saturation transfer (gagCEST) values were compared with a linear mixed model comprising a subject-specific random intercept. Overall, the mean values of the Pfirrmann grading, the SPARCC, presence of fatty depositions, and syndesmophytes of the patient and the control group were compared by the Kruskal-Wallis test. p values < 0.05 were considered significant. MRI scores were Pfirrmann scores, Spondyloarthropathy Research Consortium of Canada (SPARCC), and the presence of fatty deposition (chronic inflammation of vertebral corners). The presence of syndesmophytes was scored by CR
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