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Table 5 Clinical outcomes in patients with and without visual manifestations at diagnosis

From: Clinical outcomes of patients with giant cell arteritis treated with tocilizumab in real-world clinical practice: decreased incidence of new visual manifestations

  Patients with visual manifestations at diagnosis (n = 22) Patients without visual manifestations at diagnosis (n = 38)
Before TCZ initiation After TCZ initiation Before TCZ initiation After TCZ initiation
Follow-up time, median (IQR), years 0.37 (0.20–0.92) 0.86 (0.28–1.16) 0.86 (0.18–1.84) 0.56 (0.37–1.73)
Rate of flares per year*
 Rate (95% CI) 1.2 (0.6, 2.5) 0.4 (0.1–1.2) 1.5 (0.9–2.4) 0.6 (0.3–1.2)
 Rate ratio (95% CI)   0.3 (0.1–0.8)   0.4 (0.3–0.7)
p value   0.021   0.003
Patients with ≥ 1 flare, n (%) 15 (68.2) 4 (18.2) 28 (73.7) 14 (36.8)
Patients with ≥ 1 flare with visual manifestations, n (%) 9 (40.9) 2 (9.1) 5 (13.2) 1 (2.6)
 Permanent vision loss 1 (4.5) 0 1 (2.6) 0
  AION 1 (4.5) 0 1 (2.6) 0
  CRAO 0 0 0 0
 Temporary vision impairment 9 (40.9) 2 (9.1) 5 (13.2) 1 (2.6)
  Amaurosis fugax 2 (9.1) 1 (4.5) 2 (5.3) 0
  Blurred vision 8 (36.4) 2 (9.1) 4 (10.5) 1 (2.6)
  Diplopia 1 (4.5) 0 1 (2.6) 0
Total no. of flares 29 9 73 28
Total flares with visual manifestations, n (%) 10 (34.4) 2 (22.2) 5 (6.8) 1 (3.6)
 Permanent vision loss 1 (3.4) 0 1 (1.4) 0
  AION 1 (3.4) 0 1 (1.4) 0
  CRAO 0 0 0 0
 Temporary vision impairment 10 (34.4) 2 (22.2) 5 (6.8) 1 (3.6)
  Amaurosis fugax 2 (6.8) 1 (11.1) 2 (2.7) 0
  Blurred vision 9 (31.0) 2 (22.2) 4 (5.5) 1 (3.6)
  Diplopia 1 (3.4) 0 1 (1.4) 0
  1. AION anterior ischemic optic neuropathy, CRAO central retinal artery occlusion, GCA giant cell arteritis, IQR interquartile range, TCZ tocilizumab
  2. *Rates were estimated from a Poisson regression model with ongoing treatment (TCZ and glucocorticoid combinations), age, smoking history, and new or relapsing GCA as covariates, and random patient effect
  3. Symptoms were after GCA diagnosis. Percentage of flares is out of the total number of flares