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Table 1 Summary of key points discussed in the text

From: Cytomegalovirus infection: friend or foe in rheumatoid arthritis?

• HCMV infection does not appear to be a causative agent of RA.
• HCMV may increase local inflammation caused by P. gingivalis in periodontitis.
• This increase may occur either through immune response or through intrinsic action.
• RA patients seropositive for HCMV display lower bone erosion.
• HCMV inhibits OC differentiation through the induction of QKI5.
• HCMV may also participate in lowering bone erosion through the induction of IFN-α and IL-10 and by producing viral IL-10. IFN-γ produced during the immune response may be involved in this inhibition process.
• Our hypothesis is that HCMV is an aggravating agent of RA on the one hand while seropositivity reduces bone erosion possibly through QKI5 expression on the other hand, although a combination of other mechanisms certainly applies.