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Table 1 Demographic and clinical characteristics in patients with or without chronic scarring alopecia

From: Chinese SLE Treatment and Research Group Registry (CSTAR) XIII: prevalence and risk factors for chronic scarring alopecia in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus

  No scarring alopecia (n = 4418) Scarring alopecia (n = 374) OR (95%CI) p value
Age, years 33.51 (11.18) 33.06 (10.15) 0.996 (0.987~1.006) 0.435
Sex (female) 4148 (93.89%) 344 (91.98%) 0.776 (0.524~1.149) 0.205
Body mass index (kg/m2) 21.53 (3.07) 21.37 (2.88) 0.983 (0.946~1.022) 0.382
Comorbidities
 Smokinga (n = 4725) 120 (2.76%) 17 (4.57%) 1.689 (1.005~2.839) 0.048*
 Diabetes (n=4492) 67 (1.62%) 4 (1.10%) 0.678 (0.246~1.869) 0.452
 Hypertension(n=4699) 506 (11.69%) 38 (10.22%) 0.859 (0.607~1.217) 0.393
 Dyslipidemiab (n = 4550) 227 (5.43%) 22 (5.98%) 1.108 (0.706~1.740) 0.657
Disease activity and damage
 SLEDAI (mean ± S.D.) 4.67 (5.95) 7.06 (8.26)
 SLICC/ACR-DI (mean ± S.D.) 0.24 (0.61) 0.59 (1.05) 1.241 (1.090~1.414)c 0.001**
Autoimmunity characteristics
 ANA positive 4277 (96.81%) 354 (94.65%)
 Anti-dsDNA positive 3229 (73.09%) 277 (74.06%) 1.052 (0.827~1.338) 0.682
 Anti-Sm positive 1736 (39.39%) 178 (47.59%) 1.403 (1.135~1.734) 0.002**
 Anti-SSA positive (n = 3869) 2080 (57.89%) 175 (57.76%) 1.006 (0.793~1.275) 0.964
 Anti-SSB positive (n = 3856) 740 (20.80%) 67 (22.41%) 0.910 (0.685~1.208) 0.513
 Anti-rRNP positive (n = 3476) 714 (22.19%) 75 (29.07%) 0.696 (0.525~0.922) 0.011*
 Anti-RNP positive (n = 3797) 1386 (39.54%) 132 (45.21%) 0.793 (0.624~1.008) 0.058
 LA (n = 2504) 431 (18.48%) 38 (22.09%) 0.799 (0.549~1.163) 0.242
 aCL (n = 3320) 545 (17.77%) 45 (17.79%) 0.999 (0.714~1.397) 0.995
 Anti-β2GPI (n = 3086) 473 (16.53%) 35 (15.56%) 1.075 (0.740~1.563) 0.704
Organ involvements
 Mucocutaneous 2475 (56.02%) 269 (71.93%) 2.011 (1.593~2.540) < 0.001***
 Musculoskeletal 2463 (55.75%) 218 (58.29%) 1.109 (0.896~1.374) 0.342
 Serositis 463 (10.48%) 38 (10.16%) 0.966 (0.681~1.370) 0.846
 Renal 1518 (34.36%) 98 (26.20%) 0.678 (0.534~0.861) 0.001**
 Neuropsychiatric 78 (1.77%) 9 (2.41%) 1.372 (0.683~2.758) 0.375
 Gastrointestinal tract 48 (1.09%) 4 (1.07%) 0.984 (0.353~2.745) 0.976
 Cardio-respiratory 142 (3.21%) 4 (1.07%) 0.326 (0.120~0.884) 0.028*
 Blood 1822 (41.24%) 138 (36.90%) 0.833 (0.670~1.037) 0.101
Treatment strategies (ever use)
 Glucocorticoid 3781 (85.58%) 328 (87.70%) 1.201 (0.872~1.654) 0.261
 Immunosuppressantsd 1831 (41.44%) 111 (29.68%) 0.596 (0.474~0.750) < 0.001***
 Cyclophosphamide 539 (12.20%) 32 (8.56%) 0.673 (0.464~0.978) 0.038*
 Mycophenolate mofetil 772 (17.47%) 46 (12.30%) 0.649 (0.472~0.893) 0.008**
 Azathioprine 141 (3.19%) 9 (2.41%) 0.698 (0.352~1.383) 0.303
 Cyclosporine 252 (5.70%) 17 (4.55%) 0.731 (0.441~1.210) 0.223
 Tacrolimus 324 (7.33%) 17 (4.55%) 0.588 (0.357~0.970) 0.038*
 Hydroxychloroquine 3449 (78.07%) 298 (79.68%) 1.102 (0.848~1.431) 0.469
 Biologic agents 71 (1.61%) 4 (1.07%) 0.662 (0.240~1.822) 0.425
  1. SLEDAI SLE disease activity index, SLICC/ACR-DI Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics/American College of Rheumatology damage index, ANA Antinuclear antibody, anti-dsDNA anti-double-stranded DNA, anti-Sm anti-Smith, anti-SSA anti-Sjogren syndrome A, anti-SSB anti-Sjogren syndrome B, anti-rRNP anti-ribosomal P protein, anti-RNP anti-ribonucleoprotein, LA lupus anticoagulant, aCL anticardiolipin antibody, anti-β2GPI anti-β2glycoprotein I
  2. *p < 0.05; **p < 0.01; ***p < 0.001
  3. aCurrent or suspended in last 5 years
  4. bHypercholesterolaemia ≥ 5.18 mmol/L and/or hypertriglyceridaemia ≥ 1.69 mmol/L
  5. cSLICC/ACR-DI excluded chronic scarring alopecia in risk factor analysis
  6. dImmunosuppressants included cyclophosphamide, mycophenolate mofetil, azathioprine, cyclosporine, tacrolimus
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