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Table 1 Association between baseline patient characteristics and flare status

From: Low frequency of flares during pregnancy and post-partum in stable lupus patients

CharacteristicDuring pregnancyPost-partum
 Total, n = 384No flare, n = 284Flare, n = 100p valueTotal, n = 234No flare, n = 177Flare, n = 57p value
Demographic characteristics
 Ethnicity/race   0.019   0.85
  Non-Hispanic White188 (49)149 (52.5)39 (39) 118 (50.4)90 (50.8)28 (49.1) 
  Hispanic White30 (7.8)19 (6.7)11 (11) 15 (6.4)13 (7.3)2 (3.5) 
  African American78 (20.3)53 (18.7)25 (25) 42 (17.9)30 (16.9)12 (21.1) 
  Asian41 (10.7)34 (12.0)7 (7) 32 (13.7)25 (14.1)7 (12.3) 
  Other10 (2.6)8 (2.8)2 (2) 7 (3)5 (2.8)2 (3.5) 
  Unknown37 (9.6)21 (7.4)16 (16) 20 (8.5)14 (7.9)6 (10.5) 
  Mean age (SD), years30.92 (4.89)31.4 (4.73)29.56 (5.08)0.00231.19 (4.48)31.24 (4.39)31.04 (4.78)0.78
 Ever lupus nephritis   0.75   0.53
  No264 (68.8)197 (69.4)67 (67) 160 (68)123 (69)37 (65) 
  Yes120 (31.2)87 (30.6)33 (33) 74 (32)54 (41)20 (35) 
 Laboratory values
  Anti dsDNA antibodies   0.85   0.47
  Negative217 (58)162 (58.5)55 (56.7) 132 (64)98 (62)34 (69) 
  Positive157 (42)115 (41.5)42 (43.3) 74 (36)59 (38)15 (31) 
 aPL (LAC, aβ2GP1, aCL)   0.25   0.15
  Negative322 (83.9)234 (82.4)88 (88) 195 (83)144 (81)51 (89) 
  Positive62 (16.1)50 (17.6)12 (12) 39 (17)33 (19)6 (11) 
 LAC   0.17   0.64
  Negative350 (91.1)255 (89.8)95 (95) 213 (91)162 (92)51 (89) 
  Positive34 (8.9)29 (10.2)5 (5) 21 (9)15 (8)6 (11) 
 Urinary protein excretion > 500 mg/day   1   1
  No338 (91.1)251 (91.3)87 (90.6) 201 (89)153 (89)48 (89) 
  Yes33 (8.9)24 (8.7)9 (9.4) 24 (11)18 (11)6 (11) 
 Platelet count
  Mean (SD), × 106 cells/L253.1 (84.32)252.96 (84.25)253.39 (84.94)0.97234.56 (75.25)236.41 (76.23)228.73 (72.49)0.52
   < 100 × 106 cells/L   0.054    
  No369 (97.6)276 (98.6)93 (94.9)     
  Yes9 (2.4)4 (1.4)5 (5.1)     
 Low complement   0.021   0.61
  No251 (65.9)195 (69.4)56 (56) 155 (74)120 (75)35 (70) 
  Yes130 (34.1)86 (30.6)44 (44) 55 (26)40 (25)15 (30) 
  Mean C3 (SD) g/L104.57 (27.15)105.06 (26.15)103.17 (29.91)0.56121.86 (28.55)120.75 (28.20)125.37 (29.65)0.34
 C3 low or normal   0.10    
  Normal291 (80)221 (82.2)70 (73.7)     
  Low73 (20)48 (17.8)25 (26.3)     
  Mean C4 (SD), g/L19.84 (8.28)20.3 (8.46)18.40 (7.68)0.05121.07 (9.23)21.36 (9.36)20.20 (8.87)0.43
 C4 low or normal   0.005    
  Normal266 (74.1)207 (78.1)59 (62.8)     
  Low93 (25.9)58 (21.9)35 (37.2)     
 Disease activity
 SLEPDAI
  Mean score (SD)2.79 (2.99)2.55 (2.89)3.47 (3.18)0.0122.09 (2.76)2.22 (2.76)1.68 (2.76)0.22
 SLEPDAI > 4   0.015   0.38
  No310 (81.6)237 (84.6)73 (73) 192 (88)143 (87)49 (92) 
  Yes70 (18.4)43 (15.4)27 (27) 26 (12)22 (13)4 (8) 
 PGA
  Mean score (SD)0.4 (0.54)0.33 (0.5)0.59 (0.6)p < 0.0010.35 (0.5)0.34 (0.5)0.39 (0.52)0.49
  PGA > 1   0.005   0.55
  No327 (89.3)249 (92.2)78 (81.2) 201 (93)155 (94)46 (90) 
  Yes39 (10.7)21 (7.8)18 (18.8) 15 (7)10 (6)5 (10) 
Current medications
 Glucocorticoids   0.25   1
  No230 (59.9)175 (61.6)55 (55) 136 (58)103 (58)33 (58) 
  Yes154 (40.1)109 (38.4)45 (45) 98 (42)74 (42)24 (42) 
 Hydroxychloroquine   0.79   0.23
  No136 (35.4)99 (34.9)37 (37) 79 (34)56 (32)23 (40) 
  Yes248 (64.6)185 (65.1)63 (63) 155 (66)121 (68)34 (60) 
 Azathioprine   0.41   0.52
  No314 (81.8)229 (80.6)85 (85) 186 (79)139 (79)47 (82) 
  Yes70 (18.2)55 (19.4)15 (15) 48 (21)38 (21)10 (18) 
 Heparin   0.34   0.42
  No300 (78.1)218 (76.8)82 (82) 184 (79)137 (77)47 (82) 
  Yes84 (21.9)66 (23.2)18 (18) 50 (21)40 (23)10 (18) 
 Aspirin   0.17   0.24
  No249 (64.8)178 (62.7)71 (71) 162 (69)119 (67)43 (75) 
  Yes135 (35.2)106 (37.3)29 (29) 72 (31)58 (33)14 s(25) 
 Anti-hypertensives   1   0.44
  No351 (91.4)260 (91.5)91 (91) 215 (92)164 (93)51 (89) 
  Yes33 (8.6)24 (8.5)9 (9) 19 (8)13 (7)6 (11) 
 Flares during pregnancy   0.69
  No 169 (72)129 (73)40 (70) 
  Yes 65 (28)48 (27)17 (30)