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Table 3 Unadjusted and adjusted (multivariable) associations between independent variables (clinical and fixed variables) and radiographic OA progression (JSN ≥ 0 .5mm)

From: Clinical risk factors associated with radiographic osteoarthritis progression among people with knee pain: a longitudinal study

Independent variables Exposed with progression Non-exposed with progression Unadjusted odds ratio (95% CI) Adjusted odds ratio (95% CI) p-value
Radiographic OA progression (R 2 = 16%)
Clinical factors
  Use of NSAIDs 15.0% 10.3% 1.53 (0.86, 2.72) 2.05 (1.10, 3.84) 0.025
  Inadequate physical activity 13.2% 6.8% 2.08 (0.96, 4.53) 2.07 (0.92, 4.68) 0.080
Fixed variables
  Minimal joint space width (<3.13mm) 23.3% 8.1% 3.44 (1.95, 6.05) 2.53 (1.31, 4.88) 0.006
  Varus alignment (≤178°) 26.0% 9.3% 3.45 (1.86, 6.39) 2.23 (1.09, 4.57) 0.028
  Disease severity (K&L grade ≥2) 17.3% 7.0% 2.80 (1.57, 5.01) 1.88 (0.98, 3.58) 0.056
  Age (>60 years) 12.5% 10.6% 1.20 (0.69,2.10) 1.02 (0.56, 1.87) 0.939
  Sex (female) 10.3% 13.4% 0.74 (0.43, 1.28) 0.88 (0.48, 1.60) 0.666
  Obesitya 11.8% 11.5% 1.02 (0.59, 1.77) 1.17 (0.64, 2.14) 0.603
  High blood pressure 10.4% 12.2% 0.84 (0.46, 1.52) 0.65 (0.34, 1.25) 0.198
  High baseline pain (WOMAC pain >10) 7.1% 13.0% 0.52 (0.24, 1.13) 0.52 (0.23, 1.18) 0.118
  No glucosamine/chondroitin combination 12.5% 9.3% 1.39 (0.71, 2.71) 1.26 (0.62, 2.56) 0.521
  1. aObesity defined as body mass index ≥30 kg/m2 and/or high waist circumference (>102 cm for men, >88 cm for women)
  2. NSAIDs non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, K&L Kellgren and Lawrence, WOMAC Western Ontario and McMaster Universities OA index