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Table 2 Characteristics of patients with different imaging phenotypes

From: Clinical characteristics, imaging phenotypes and events free survival in Takayasu arteritis patients with hypertension

  Cluster 1 Cluster 2 Cluster 3 P-value
Baseline assessment N = 56 N = 38 N = 110  
Demography     
 Female (n, %) 34 (59.6%)* 30 (78.9%) 91 (82.7%) 0.007
 Age (years, IQR) 27 (20–39)# 42 (32–54) 39 (27–49) < 0.001
 Disease duration (months, IQR) 12 (3–56) 33 (4–72) 30 (4–120) 0.334
Clinical manifestation (n, %)     
 Systemic symptoms (fever, weakness, etc.) 15 (26.8%) 17 (44.7%) 45 (40.9%) 0.320
 Neurological symptoms (headache, amaurosis, etc.) 17 (30.3%) 21 (55.3%) 51 (46.4%) 0.461
 Cardiovascular symptoms (chest distress/pain, etc.) 10 (17.9%)# 16 (42.1%) 31 (28.2%) 0.010
Complications (n, %)     
 Renal insufficiency 5 (8.9%)# 1 (2.6%)& 12 (10.9%) 0.046
 Heart failure 1 (1.8%)#, * 5 (13.2%) 18 (16.4%) 0.013
 Cerebral infarction 1 (1.8%)* 0 8 (7.3%) 0.007
Hypertensive severity (n, %)     
 Moderate 18 (32.1%) 12 (31.6%) 32 (29.1%) 0.217
 Severe 26 (46.4%) 10 (26.3%)& 58 (52.7%) 0.014
Artery involvement (n, %)     
 Renal artery stenosis > 75% 29 (51.8%)* 0 40 (36.4%) < 0.001
 Abdominal aorta stenosis > 50% 19 (33.9%) 0 24 (21.8%) < 0.001
Echocardiography (n, %)     
 Severe AR 4 (7.1%)# 5 (11.4%) 10 (9.1%) 0.047
Follow-up assessment N = 47 N = 35 N = 105  
Blood pressure control status (n, %)     
 Controlled 17 (36.2%)# 26 (74.3%) 52 (47.3%) < 0.001
 Improved 25 (53.2%) 7 (20.0%) 44 (40.0%) 0.117
 Failure 5 (10.6%)# 2 (5.7%) 9 (8.2%) 0.032
Events (n, %)     
 Persistent refractory or malignant hypertension 9 (19.1%)# 3 (8.6%)& 15 (13.6%) 0.024
 Renal insufficiency 4 (8.5%) 0 8 (7.3%) 0.178
 Congestive heart failure 1 (2.1%)# 2 (5.7%)& 4 (3.8%) 0.017
Events free survival by the end 59.6%# 80.0% 67.6% 0.049
  1. Cluster 1: involvement of abdominal aorta and/or renal artery; Cluster 2: involvement of ascending aorta, thoracic aorta, aortic arch and its branches; Cluster 3: combined involvement of Cluster 1 and Cluster 2; AR aortic regurgitation; P value: comparison among patients with different imaging phenotypes; #p < 0.05 for comparisons between patients with Cluster 1 and Cluster 2 phenotype; *p < 0.05 for comparisons between patients with Cluster 1 and Cluster 3 phenotype; and &p < 0.05 for comparisons between patients with Cluster 2 and Cluster 3 phenotype.