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Table 2 Perinatal factors for gout cases compared to matched population controls, with univariate odds ratios, a Only available from 1982, when recording of maternal smoking was initiated. OR odds ratio, n.s. non-significant, CI confidence interval

From: Association between perinatal factors and future risk for gout—a nested case-control study

Characteristic Subcategory Cases, n=1399 Controls, n=5515 Univariate OR (95% CI) p value
Maternal age groups <20 75 (5%) 305 (6%) Ref  
20–35 1234 (88%) 4800 (87%) 1.05 (0.81–1.4) 0.7
36– 90 (6%) 410 (7%) 0.9 (0.64–1.3) 0.6
Maternal stature –154 9 (1%) 50 (1%) Ref  
155–164 117 (8%) 553 (10%) 1.18 (0.56–2.5) 0.7
165–174 209 (15%) 773 (14%) 1.5 (0.7–3.1) 0.27
175– 34 (2%) 129 (2%) 1.46 (0.66–3.3) 0.35
Missing 1030 (72%) 4027 (71%) -- --
Marital status Married 616 (44) 2466 (45) Ref  
Single mother 283 (20) 1071 (19) 1.06 (0.9–1.24) 0.5
Missing 500 (36) 1978 (36) -- --
BMI classes, at start, n (%) <20 58 (4%) 273 (5%) Ref  
20–25 206 (15%) 835 (15%) 1.16 (0.84–1.6) 0.36
26–30 38 (3%) 120 (2%) 1.49 (0.9–2.4) 0.09
>30 16 (1%) 38 (1%) 1.98 (1.04–3.8) 0.04
Missing 1081 (77%) 4249 (77%) -- --
Parity 0 584 (42%) 2345 (43%) Ref  
≥1 815 (58%) 3170 (57%) 1.03 (0.92–1.16) 0.6
Disease of the mother, n (%) Recurrent urinary tract infection 18 (1.3) 82 (1.5) 0.86 (0.52–1.4) 0.6
Chronic kidney disease 1 (0.07) 6 (0.11) --  
Diabetes 9 (0.64) 12 (0.22) 2.98 (1.25–7.1) 0.01
Epilepsy 2 (0.1) 4 (0.07) --  
Asthma/lung disease 6 (0.4) 12 (0.22) 1.98 (0.7–5.3) 0.2
Inflammatory bowel disease 2 (0.14) 2 (0.04) --  
SLE 0 0 --  
Hypertension 1 (0.07) 5 (0.09) --  
Maternal smoking, at start of pregnancya Yes 159 (11) 480 (9) 1.57 (1.25–1.96) <.0001
No 264 (19) 1248 (23) Ref  
Missing 976 (70) 3787 (69)   
Season of birth Month 1–3 358 (26%) 1454 (26%) Ref  
Month 4–6 389 (28%) 1503 (27%) 1.05 (0.9–1.2) n.s.
Month 7–9 344 (25%) 1351 (25%) 1.03 (0.88–1.2) n.s.
Month 10–12 299 (21%) 1183 (21%) 1.03 (0.87–1.2) n.s.
Missing 24 (0.4) 9 (0.6) --  
Mode of delivery, n (%) Vaginal 1353 (97) 5370 (97) Ref  
Caesarean (acute and elective) 46 (3) 145 (3) 1.26 (0.9–1.76) 0.17
Birth weight grams, n (%) <2500 73 (5) 200 (4) Ref  
2500–2999 185 (13) 595 (11) 0.85 (0.62–1.17) 0.32
3000–3499 443 (32) 1693 (31) 0.72 (0.54–0.96) 0.02
3500–3999 456 (33) 1950 (35) 0.64 (0.48–0.85) 0.002
4000–4499 197 (14) 874 (16) 0.62 (0.45–0.84) 0.002
≥4500 45 (3) 203 (4) 0.61 (0.4–0.92) 0.02
Birth weight for gestational age, n (%) Small for gestational age 82 (6) 187 (3) 1.77 (1.36–2.3) <.0001
Normal for gestational age 1275 (91) 5153 (93) Ref  
Large for gestational age 42 (3) 175 (3) 0.97 (0.69–1.37) 0.86
Gestational age, days, n (%) ≤258 90 (6) 316 (6) Ref  
259–293 1168 (83) 4600 (83) 0.89 (0.7–1.1) 0.3
≥294 141 (10) 599 (11) 0.83 (0.6–1.17) 0.2
Number of older siblings, n (%) 0 582 (42) 2323 (42) Ref  
1 512 (37) 2038 (37) 1.003 (0.88–1.15) n.s.
2 219 (16) 813 (15) 1.08 (0.9–1.28) n.s.
≥3 86 (6) 341 (6) 1.007 (0.78–1.3) n.s.
Congenital malformation, n (%) Yes 92 (7) 275 (5) 1.34 (1.05–1.7) 0.018
No 1307 (93) 5240 (95) Ref
Five most common malformations, n (%) Urogenital malformation 27 (2) 11 (2) 0.97 (0.63–1.48) 0.88
Musculoskeletal malformation 12 (1) 40 (1) 1.18 (0.62–2.26) 0.61
Down’s syndrome 13 (1) 4 (0.1) 12.9 (4.2–39.7) <.0001
Cardiovascular malformations 12 (0.8) 27 (0.5) 1.61 (0.8–3.3) 0.2
Face and throat malformations 6 (0.4) 17 (0.3) 1.39 (0.55–3.54) 0.5