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Table 2 Clinical, structural, and biological parameters

From: Effects of local cryotherapy on systemic endothelial activation, dysfunction, and vascular inflammation in adjuvant-induced arthritis (AIA) rats

  Arthritis score Radiographic score TNF-α (pg/ml) IL-1β (pg/ml) IL-6 (pg/ml) IL-17A (pg/ml) OPG (pg/ml)
“Endothelial activation” series
 Control n.d. n.d. 4.6 ± 0.9 26.1 ± 4.9 15.7 ± 1.8 2.7 ± 0.6 n.d.
 AIA 4.0 ± 0.3 22.2 ± 1.9 15.3 ± 1.5### 64.5 ± 5.9### 65.0 ± 9.0## 25.8 ± 2.8### n.d.
 AIA-cryo 2.4 ± 0.3*** 14.8 ± 1.5** 12.8 ± 1.2 59.7 ± 5.5 44.8 ± 3.1* 15.5 ± 2.1** n.d.
“Leucocyte infiltration” series
 Control n.d. n.d. n.d. n.d. n.d. n.d. n.d.
 AIA 5.0 ± 0.2 21.0 ± 2.5 n.d. n.d. n.d. n.d. n.d.
 AIA-cryo 3.0 ± 0.3** 14.7 ± 1.0* n.d. n.d. n.d. n.d. n.d.
“Endothelial function” series
 Control n.d. n.d. 5.3 ± 4.5 17.2 ± 4.1 5.8 ± 2.4 5.5 ± 1.3 208.5 ± 26.7
 AIA 4.6 ± 0.2 25.2 ± 1.9 5.1 ± 1.4 25.3 ± 3.7 28.3 ± 3.7### 23.6 ± 2.1### 220.8 ± 21.0
 AIA-cryo 3.1 ± 0.2** 18.3 ± 1.7* 9.8 ± 5.1 31.3 ± 11.9 19.3 ± 3.4 18.1 ± 1.3* 170.3 ± 10.7*
  1. Values are expressed as means ± SEM (n=7–12 rats per group). The treatment was applied from day 10 (onset of arthritis) to day 24 (acute inflammatory phase) for “endothelial activation” and “leucocyte infiltration” series, and until day 33 for “endothelial function” series. Cytokines and OPG were measured in plasma. n.d.: not determined
  2. ## p<0.01, ### p<0.001 vs control, * p<0.05, **p<0.01, *** p<0.001 vs AIA