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Table 1 Risk factors for low bone mineral density (BMD) in the age-adjusted and sex-adjusted model

From: Rheumatoid arthritis and risk factors for low bone mineral density

Variable Comparison Spine, odds ratio (95% confidence interval) P Femoral neck, odds ratio (95% confidence interval) P
Female Male 1.43 (0.44–4.68) 0.55 1.35 (0.41–4.47) 0.63
Menopause Premenopause 0.96 (0.51–1.81) 0.92 1.34 (0.72–2.52) 0.49
Ever smoking Never smoked 0.88 (0.42–1.89) 0.76 1.19 (0.57–2.51) 0.64
Nonvertebral      
   Fracture No fracture 0.98 (0.28–3.39) 0.98 1.38 (0.42–4.53) 0.59
   Ever HRT Never HRT 0.41 (0.15–1.15) 0.09 0.30 (0.14–1.10) 0.08
Disease duration      
   1–5 years < 1 year 1.51 (0.55–4.06) 0.42 3.07 (0.91–10.34) 0.07
   5 years < 1 year 2.54 (1.06–6.05) 0.04 7.46 (2.47–22.48) 0.0001
Corticosteroids      
   Ever Never 3.19 (1.56–6.54) 0.001 2.07 (1.06–4.02) 0.03
   < 7.5 mg daily Never 2.75 (1.28–5.88) 0.009 1.83 (0.89–3.74) 0.09
   7.5 mg daily Never 4.29 (1.81–10.20) 0.001 2.61 (1.15–5.91) 0.02
   < 5 g cummulative Never 1.51 (0.56–3.99) 0.42 1.04 (0.41–2.67) 0.93
   5–10 g cummulative Never 2.61 (0.99–6.88) 0.05 0.95 (0.34–2.63) 0.92
   > 10 g cummulative Never 5.11 (2.3–11.29 0.0001 4.05 (1.9–8.61) 0.0001
  1. Low BMD, Z score < -1 compared with our normal population. HRT, hormone replacement therapy.